Some Sayings from the Salaf Concerning Allah سبحانه وتعالى ‘s
Attributes and their Ijmaa’ (Consensus) Concerning the
Falsehood of Ta’weel Part 3
بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
السلام عليكم ورحت الله وبركاته
(Continued from previous part) End of his words, may Allaah have mercy upon him. And Muhammad ibn ‘Abdul-’Aleem Abul-Hammaam of Jaami’atul-Azhar said, after addressing the issue of
interpolating Istawaa (He ascended) to mean istawlaa (He conquered):
“… And from this is the danger of ta’weel (i.e. that it necessitates the consideration of Allaah and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم to have lied) and Ibn al-Qayyim explains that it (ta’weel) is more evil than ta’teel, which is merely, ‘denying the Divine Attributes and rejecting their being established with the Self of Allaah (Dhaat), the Most Perfect because it (ta’weel) contains both tashbeeh, ta’teel and also playing and fooling with the texts as well as having a bad opinion of them. The Mu’attil (denier of the Attributes) and the Mu’awwil (one who interpolates them) have shared (with each other) in the denial of the realities of the Names and Attributes but the Mu’awwil has exceeded in his playing and fooling with the texts and having a bad opinion of them and also ascribing to the one who speaks with them — that he speaks with their apparent (meanings), that he is astray and leads others astray. Therefore, they have combined in (falling into) four dangers:
(i) Their belief that what is manifest and apparent from the words of Allaah and His Messenger is impossible and is falsehood, therefore they have understood them to be tashbeeh (anthropomorphism) from the very beginning.
(ii) They have denied the reality of their meanings on the basis that this is such an understanding that does not befit them and nor does it befit the Lord, the Most Perfect.
(iii) Ascribing to the speaker, the perfect in knowledge and elucidation (bayaan) and the perfect in giving advice, and that is Allaah, the Most Perfect, the opposite of elucidation (bayaan), guidance (hudaa) and giving direction (iirshad). This (i.e. resorting to ta’weel) necessitates that they are more knowledgeable than Him, more eloquent and clear (in speech) than Him and greater in giving advice to mankind.
(iv) Playing with the texts (of the Book and the Sunnah) and putting an end to their sanctity and sacredness. Let alone:
(v) That the Mu’awwil (one who resorts to ta’weel) is not pleased with, for Allaah the Exalted, what the most knowledgeable of Him amongst the people, and he is the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم was pleased with for Him.
(vi) That this ta’weel, had Allaah desired it for Himself, then He would have ordered it in His Book or upon the tongue of His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم and then ta’weel of the Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, would have been obligatory, a necessary part of the religion, the neglect of which would be forbidden and whoever abandoned it would have been sinful. And this is in addition to the fact that when Allah, the Most High, has not permitted it then doing it would he a mistake and it would be a manner that is blameworthy and forbidden, due to what it implies, (that is): its being a form of correcting and rectifying Allaah, the Most High, and His Messenger صلى الله عليه و سلم.
(vii) That the Mu’awwil of the Attributes of Allaah, in fleeing from tashbeeh (anthropomorphism) and fearing it, has been ignorant of a great reality and this is the impossibility of there being any likeness between the Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, and the attributes of His servants since there can be no likeness between the Attributes of the Creator and the attributes of the creation ever. And this is due to the fact that Allaah has informed that there is nothing like Him and He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing, and that He is Unique (Ahad) and that there is no equal to Him. And the Mu’awwil (in resorting to ta’weel) is a liar (kaadhib) since the reality differs from what he says in its entirety and is also a denier (mukadhdhib) because he has rejected Allaah with respect to His saying: “There is nothing like Him.”
And he is a pagan (mushrik) and a disbeliever (kaafir) due to associating some of the servants of Allaah with some of the Attributes of Allaah, the Most High.
(viii) That this Mu’awwd of the Attributes of Allaah, the Most High, in fleeing from tashbeeh and in fearing it, the mighty difference between the Attributes of the Creator, the Magnificent and Most High, and between the attributes of the weak and incapable servants has become hidden from him.
(ix) And ta’weel makes the texts (of the Book and the Sunnah) lose their characteristic reverence and prestige since this ta’weel has not depended upon an authentic text from the Sharee’ah and not a single one of the scholars of the Salaf have spoken with it.
(x) And likewise this ta’weel is in contradiction with the fact that Islam, being a practical religion, is compatible and in harmony with every age and era. And it also contradicts the fact that Allaah, the Most High, has described the Qur’aan as being a discourse (Hayaan), an explanation (tibyaan) for every single thing, and something made easy for remembrance, and in whose aayaat reflection and contemplation has been requested. And for this reason Abul-Qaasim ibn Mandah said in his hook ‘Ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah,’ “To the Ashaabul-Hadeeth, ta’weel is a form of rejection (takdheeb).”
Taken from “Usool as Sunnah,” by Imam Ahmad bin Hanbal رحمه الله