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Archive for January 21st, 2009

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Continuing from the last time insha’Allah

Ayah 6:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

“Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.”

There are three opinions to whom this ayah refers to:

1) Jews of Madinah who knew the truth and lied against Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما] [36]

2) Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم wished that all people would believe but Allah سبحانه وتعالى had informed him that only for those whom He willed guidance would believe.

3) About the people Allah سبحانه وتعالى mentions,

“Have you not seen those who have changed the Blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction? Hell, in which they will burn, – and what an evil place to settle in!”

They were the one killed in Battle of Badr.

In conclusion, Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله supported the opinions 1 & 2 and gave the reason,

“Because this follows Allah سبحانه و تعالى’s speaking about the believers amongst the people of Scripture thus it’s more appropriate that there should follow description about kuffar from them.” [37]


Ayah 7:

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

“Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah’s Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.”

The original meaning of khatama is to impress (strike) [38]

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ

As usual there also two opinions regarding this:

1) Al A’mash رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid showed us by using his hand and said, ‘Our Companions considered the heart like this’ i.e.; the palm of the hand. ‘When the servant commits a sin, a part of it is closed up’ and he demonstrated by curling up his little finger like this – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger like this, until he had curled up all his fingers. He said, ‘Then it is impressed with a seal.’ ‘They also considered this to be the “stain”’

Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid said, ‘I was informed that sins surround the heart on various sided until they merge round about it. This merging round it is the impress, and the impress is the seal.

Also Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “’Abd Allah bin Kathir said he heard Mujahid say, ‘The “stain” is less serious that the “seal”, the “seal” is less serious than the “locks”, the “locks” (refer to 47:24) are more severe than of all of these.”

2) Some of them said that the meaning of His words “Allah has set a seal on their hearts” is that it is a message from Allah about their arrogance, and their aversion to listening to the truth they were summoned to, as when one says that a person is deaf to what someone says when he refuses to listen to it and arrogantly makes up his mind not to understand it.

Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله’s opinion as a conclusion,

“The truth in this matter, according to me, is what accords with the truth of the report from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم:

‘When the believer commits a sin there is a black spot in his heart. If he repents, renounces it, and asks forgiveness, this polishes his heart. But if he compounds his sin, the point grows bigger till it lock his heart, and this is the stain (raan)which Allah سبحانه و تعالى speaks of. “Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering of sins and evil deeds) which they used to earn.” [39] [40]

Al-Qurtubi رحمه اللهsaid, “The Ummah has agreed that Allah has described Himself with sealing and closing the hearts of the disbelievers, as a punishment for their disbelief” [41]

وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ

In Arabic, ghishawah means ‘covering’ for the stamp is placed on the heart and the hearing while the ghishawah, the covering, is appropriately placed on the eyes. [42]

وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Theirs is a mighty chastisement for their opposition to you [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم]. This concerns the Jewish Rabbis and concerns the truth which came to you from your Lord which they denied after they had knowledge.” [43]

References:

[36] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[37] Tafsir AlTabari

[38] Tafsir AlTabari

[39] Qur`an AlKareem {83:14}

[40] Tafsir AlTabari

[41] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[42] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[43] Tafsir AlTabari

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