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Archive for the ‘Akhlaaq & Adaab’ Category

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
الحمد الله
Ḥudhayfaħ bin al-Yamān رضي الله عنه said, “The first thing you will be deprived of in your religion will be the display of humility (i.e. person being humble).” [Kitāb az-Zuhd 1/296]

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

If one studies Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, one will find that is Suraħ is filled with laws dealing with social issues. And in this very chapter of the Qur’ān, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us how to deal with our fellow Muslims.  The saying of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى,

ياَ أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ

“O you who believe! If a fāsiq comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done”[1]

In this ayaħ, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us to make sure if the news or narration we hear from any fāsiq is true or authentic before accepting or basing our opinion on it.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Allāh the Exalted ordered investigating the news that sinners and the wicked bring, to make sure of its authenticity. Otherwise, if the sinner’s word is taken for granted and a decision is based on it, regardless of whether the information is true or not, the authorities will be taking the lead of the sinners. Allāh the Exalted and Most Honoured forbade taking the path of the corrupted and sinners. This is why groups of the scholars of Ḥadīth refuse to accept narrations from narrators whose reliability is unknown, for they might be from among the wicked people, in reality”[2]

Imām Al-Māwardī رحمه الله writes,

“In this ayaħ is the proof that the report of one individual is acceptable if he is trustworthy.”[3]

Imām Al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes,

“…And whosever’s fisq is grounded (and proven) then his statement is rejected completely for reporting is a trust and the indication of fisq nullifies it.”[4]

We, the Muslims, are afflicted with the disease of accepting whatever is presented to us with any verification what so ever whether is be a Muslim or a non-Muslim source.  A prime example of this would be the onslaught of the media against Islām. They are trying their best to portray Islām in the worst way possible.  Even in Muslim countries, the liberals and secularists ‘Muslims’ try to put down those who follow or even attempt to follow the Sunnaħ of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. The non-Muslims accuse the groups of Muslims as ‘terrorists’ and when Muslims are told this, they hear and believe in instantly without trying to find the source of the news. And we learn from this ayaħ, that this is completely forbidden for a fāsiq, then what about a non-Muslim?

Not knowing the source of information and then accusing a fellow Muslim brother/sister of something can lead to slandering which is even worse than backbiting  as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said in the following ḥadīth,

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said

“Do you know what is meant by backbiting?” They said, “Allāh and His Messenger know best.” He said, “To say something about your brother which he dislikes.” One asked, “Even if what I say is true about my brother?” He replied, “If such defects you say are true about him, then you have backbitten him, and if he doesn’t have what you say, then you have committed slander against him.” [5]

And we see that Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us in ayaħ number 12,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ ۖ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا ۚ أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate backbiting) . And fear Allāh. Verily, Allāh is the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful”.[6]

If one looks at this verse with an eye of a grammarian, he will find that the word  اجْتَنِبُوا starts with an alif known as ‘facl amr’ which means a commanding action and that means that avoiding the much suspicion is an obligation upon us as Muslims.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Allāh the Exalted forbids His faithful servants from being suspicious, which includes having doubts and suspicions about the conduct of one’s family, relatives and other people in general. Therefore, Muslims are to avoid suspicion without foundation. The Leader of the faithful cUmar bin Al-Khaṭṭāb said, “Never think ill of the word that comes out of your believing brother’s mouth, as long as you can find a good excuse for it.”

It is reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales; do not spy on one another; do not look for other’s faults; do not be jealous of one another; do not envy one another; do not hate one another; and do not desert (shun) one another. And O Allāh’s servants! Be brothers.”[7]

cAbdullāh bin cAbbās says,

“Allāh has forbidden a believer to have bad suspicions about believers.”[8]

Al-Ḥasan رحمه الله says,

“We were in a time in which having suspicion of people was forbidden, but today; you act, remain silent and be suspicious of people however you will.”[9]

So being suspicious of your brothers and sisters doing acts, in general, against the teaching Islām is not allowed at all.  As cUmar رضي الله عنه said, we should try to give our brothers and sisters good excuses when we see them doing wrong.  For example, we see a brother talking to a ghayr maḥram. Normally the people would start having ill thoughts about that brother thinking maybe she is his girlfriend or such stuff. But, he being our brother deserves that we only think good of him. Instead having doubts about his Islāmic personality, we should give the benefit of doubt that maybe he is seeking assistance from the lady or maybe the girl is his own sister.

But, we find that some Muslims are ready to accept whatever they hear from the non-Muslim sources who accuse our brothers and sisters of ‘terrorism’ and all other such nonsense.  Moreover, we see that the accused Muslims get insulted and mocked by their fellow Muslim brothers and sisters sometimes just to please the non-Muslims and at times due to their ignorance of the teachings of Islām. In Islām we know that a person is innocent until proven guilty as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Were people to be given according to their claims, some would claim the wealth and blood of others. But the burden of proof is upon the claimant and the taking of an oath is upon the one who denies (the allegation).”[10]

But the enemies of Islām think that a Muslim is guilty even when proven innocent. The reality is, we should be careful with whatever we utter as we are going to be accountable for everything we utter on the Day of Judgement.

If we let suspicion to creep in our hearts, then this gives a solid foundation to have more illnesses in our hearts such as finding faults in one another, being envious of one another, hating others and so on.

Brotherhood:

The saying of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى,

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

“The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allāh, that you may receive mercy.”[11]

This ayaħ is a general ayaħ, which means it does not specify that there comes a situation or a time when a believer does not remain another believer’s brother. Whether or not he practises his religion properly or he goes and carries out heinous crimes, a believer is a believer’s brother.

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ

Imām aṭ-Ṭabarī رحمه الله explains in his tafsīr,

“(Brothers) in religion.”[12]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim, he is not unjust with him nor does he forsake him.”[13]

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Ḥajar al-cAsqalānī رحمه الله writes in his book of sharḥ,

“‘The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim’ this is the brotherhood of Islām. For all the unity that is between the two people, takes the name of brotherhood.  ‘He is not unjust with him’ this report is of the meaning of a command for the oppression of a Muslim to another Muslim is forbidden. ‘Nor does he forsake him that he does not leave him with someone who is harmful or something that is harmful to him.”[14]

Imām al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes as an explanation of the verse,

“That is (brotherhood) in religion and sanctity, not in lineage. It was said regarding this, that the brotherhood in religion is stronger than the brotherhood in lineage for the brotherhood in lineage is disrupted due to the difference in religion whist the brotherhood in religion is not broken off due to the difference in lineage.” [15]

Part of injustice is having bad suspicion about your brother and it is one of the ingredients of the destruction of brotherhood as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Do not be envious of one another; do not artificially inflate prices against one another; do not hate one another; do not shun one another; and do not undercut one another in business transactions; and be as fellow-brothers and servants of Allāh. A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him. Piety is here – and he pointed to his chest three times. It is evil enough for a Muslim to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for another Muslim: his blood, his property and his honour.”[16]

From this ḥadīth we understand that holding a Muslim on contempt is also forbidden according to the Sharicaħ of Prophet Muḥammad صلى الله عليه و سلم. We should deal with our Muslim brothers and sisters with a clean heart and having no ill feeling having for them. This way one achieves two benefits:

1)      Having good relations with one another

2)      Possibility of committing injustice lessens as the heart is devoid of evil

فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ

This ayaħ was revealed in connection to the ayaħ preceding it but it can also be used for general purposes.

Imām al- Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Abū cUbaydaħ said, ‘Reconcile between all the brothers.’”[17]

Then he goes on and says,

“In this verse and the one before, is evidence that the ones tyrannise (like khawārij) do not cease to carry the name of Imān because Allāh, the Exalted, named them brothers of believers in spite of the fact that they are wrong doers.  Al-Ḥārith al-Acūr said that cAlī bin Abī Ṭālib was asked and he was exemplary in fighting the people of tyranny (khawārij or hypocrites) from the people of the Jamal and Ṣiffīn, ‘Are they polytheists?’ He said, ‘No, the one who do shirk have fled.’ Then it was asked, ‘Are they hypocrites?’ He said, ‘No, for the hypocrites do not remember Allāh except little.’ Then it was said to him, ‘Then what is their condition?’ He said, ‘They are our brothers who have transgressed against us.’”[18]

I have personally read statements of kufr against the brothers and sisters who are accused by the west of murdering many innocent people. The situation of cAlī رضي الله عنه was worse and still he considered them as his brothers.

In conclusion, we should try our best to refrain from all sorts of evils we could indulge in when dealing with our brothers and sisters. Not judging them, nor being suspicious of them nor speaking ill of them would solve many of the current problems this Ummaħ is facing. And indeed, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

I ask Allāh سبحانه و تعالى to accept this work and give benefit to whoever reads it and save them from misguidance. Āmīn


[1] Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, 49:06ħ

[2] Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm

[3] An-Nakat wal-‘Uyūn & Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān (similar statement mentioned)

[4] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[5] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Sunan At-Tirmidhī

[6] Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, 49:12

[7] Mu’ṭa Imām Mālik

[8] Jāmic al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[9] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[10] Sunan al-Bayhaqi

[11] Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, 49:10

[12] Jāmic al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[13] Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim  ħ

[14] Fatḥ al-Bārī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī

[15] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[16] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim

[17] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[18] Ibid

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

AlḥamduLilāh Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has blessed us nowadays with having many Islamic seminars in which we learn His Din. We find that these events are organised by brothers and sisters who have to occasionally get into a small discussion to solve an issue. Even though these brothers and sisters follow the command of lowering the gaze, they often fall into other disobediences related to such conversations. Shayṭān being evil as he is lures the brother or sister into the flirtatious talk or even something similar to it which is clearly forbidden by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى when He سبحانه و تعالى addresses the Ummahāt Al Mu’minīn,

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

“O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner.” [1]

In this piece of writing, I would like to, inshā’Allāh, elaborate on the devil’s deception of the flirtatious talk by using the classical sources of Tafsīr.

فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ

As-Suddi and others رحمهم الله said, this means, do not be gentle in speech when addressing men.

‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said commenting on this ayah, “Do not be vile in speech nor soft in voice.”[2]

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said, “The softness in conversation which is hated between women and men that has a (bad) affect to the hearts of men (i.e. provokes ill behaviour).” [3]

Imām Al Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes in his Tafsīr, “Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has commanded them to be short and concise in their words (i.e. for short duration) and distinct in their speech.”[4]

Imām Al Samarqandī رحمه الله comments on this verse, “Don’t have mildness in speech and that is tenderness in words.”[5]

This does not mean that a brother or sister should start shouting at each other or something of the like. It basically means that their conversation should be consisting of short and concise words that are said without the tenderness and softness but with a strong tone. This is all because Allāh سبحانه و تعالى says,

وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا

“And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a Fāḥishah”[6]

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى did not say وَلَا تَفْعَلُوا الزِّنَا i.e. “Do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse…” thus it is an obligation upon us to stay away from any act that leads us to zinā

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions six points regarding this phrase of the ayah:

1) Do not be gentle in speech

2) Do not be vile in conversation as said by ‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما

3) Do not be lowly in words as said by Al Farā’ رحمه الله

4) Do not be obscene in speech as said Al Ḥasan رحمه الله

5) It is a talk (i.e. mentioned in the ayah) in it resembles doubtfulness.

6) It is that talk of women that have impact to the hearts of men as mentioned by Ibn Zayd رحمه الله[7]


فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ

There has been a difference of opinion amongst the scholars of interpretation of the word مَرَضٌ:

Opinion 1:

مَرَضٌ in this verse means nifāq (hypocrisy) and this is the opinion of Qatādah رحمه الله[8]

Opinion 2:

مَرَضٌ in this verse means desire and lust to commit adultery/fornication and this is the opinion of ‘Ikrimah رحمه الله[9]

Imām Al Ṭabarī رحمه الله gives his own explanation, “He in whose heart is a disease of weakness should be moved with desire and that is the weakness of Imān in his heart.” [10]

وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said: “Decent and honourable talk that is known to be good.” [11]

Al Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله then says, “This means that she should address ghayr maram men in a manner in which there is no softness (i.e., a woman should not address a ghayr maram man in the same way that she addresses her husband).” [12]

‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said, “They are commanded to enjoin good and forbid evil.”[13]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions three points regarding this phrase of the ayah:

1) Correct and proper words as mentioned by Al Kalbī رحمه الله

2) Pure and sober words as mentioned by Al Daḥāk رحمه الله

3) Nice and decent words[14]

So in conclusion, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in this ayah tells us how to avoid one of the many paths that lead to the horrible act of zinā of which talking to the opposite gender is one. And indeed He سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Qur’an Al Karīm, Surat Al Aḥzāb , ayah 32

[2] Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr

[3] Tafsīr Al abarī

[4] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[5] Bar Al ‘Ulūm

[6]Qur’an Al Karīm, Surat Al Isrā’ , ayah 32

[7] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn

[8] Tafsīr Al Tabarī

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr

[12] Ibid

[13] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[14] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Many a times we see brothers and sisters in situations when they are trying to convince their parents or their friends about some Islamic issue when they find their close ones doing something haraam. And then they might even complain that their parents are not listening to them even though they have provided sufficient adillah. Do you notice a missing ingredient here? It is nothing other than good akhlaaq when trying to persuade someone or even trying to convey some sort of message that might receive a bad response.

Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ

“And by the Mercy of Allâh, You dealt with them gently. And had You been Severe and harsh hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allâh’s) Forgiveness for them …” [1]

In this ayah Allah سبحانه و تعالى tells us how Merciful He has been with our Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم by making him deal gently with the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم. And this is the type of manner we should employ when we give Da‘wah to others or when we try to invite others to an Islamic event.

Imam Al-Hasan Al-Basri رحمه الله said that “This, indeed, is the description of the behaviour that Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم with.” [2]

Indeed it was from the Infinite Mercy of Allah سبحانه و تعالى that He made Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم gentle and kind with his companions رضي الله عنه and set us the best example of dealing with others.

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله writes in his Tafsir, “Easy and soft manners, great toleration towards them (Sahabah رضي الله عنهم) and did not rush with them even one day in what they were indulged.”[3] Ease in dealing and having good manners is something that carries a lot of weight when one is trying to teach others. Usually one rushes in an action when he is getting frustrated with it and can’t bear it any more whereas the manner of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was the exact contrary of it.

Al Qushayri رحمه الله said, “Know that Allah سبحانه و تعالى loves those servants who have a compassionate character and a servant does not have mercy except when Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mercy upon him.”[4]

وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ

Qatadah رحمه الله said, “In order that Allah سبحانه و تعالى would purify (Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم’s heart) from dryness and hardness and make it close, merciful and compassionate to the believers.”

Ibn Ishaaq رحمه الله said, “It is the mention of the gentleness with them (Sahabah رضي الله عنهم) and his patience with their weaknesses.” [5]

Goodness and softness attract people and thus it is amongst the most important characteristics of a Da‘ee (caller to Allah سبحانه و تعالى). It is from the built in nature of a man to go where he is treated good and therefore if one treats other in a good manner, he will receive the same in return insha’Allah.

فَظْ as described by Imam Al Baydaawi رحمه الله means dry character. [6]

Imam Al Shawkaani رحمه الله described the same word with unpleasant character. [7]

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله explained the word as, “Bad character and lack of patience.”[8]

This type of nature is of a person whose surroundings do not concerns him much and have no or almost no affect on him. It also means to not have much care of the people’s issues and treat them insignificant.

غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ

Al Kalbi رحمه الله said, “فَظْ is in speech and غَلِيظَ الْقَلْب in action.” [9]

Imam Al Th‘alabi رحمه الله said, “Words on an angry face, lack of clemency and consideration.”[10]

لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ

This means that they might have left or departed from you (Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم)[11]

Because if people are treated with bad manners then they will for sure try to leave and be away from that person of evil character and this is human nature. Thus, if a child tries to persuade his mother to buy him to but starts misbehaving, then she will start ignoring the child and not get him what he desires.

Thus, we learn from this ayah:

1) The Mercy Allah سبحانه و تعالى had on His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم

2) Sunnah of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم in dealing with other people.

3) The lofty character of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم

4) The Da‘wah technique of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم

5) Importance of good manners in engagement with others

6) Evils of bad personality

7) Meanings of فَظْ and غَلِيظَ الْقَلْب and the differences between them

8) Effect of evil and vile behaviour

And indeed, Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Surat `Al ‘Imran, ayah 159

[2] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[3] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[4] Al Tahbeer

[5] Tafsir Al Tabari

[6] Tafsir Al Baydaawi

[7] Fath Al Qadeer

[8] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[9] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[10] Tafsir Al Th‘alabi

[11] Tafsir Al Tabari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Humanities Teacher – 21 Teaching Techniques of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم by Shaykh Muhammad Alshareef حفظه الله.

Humanities Teacher 21 Teaching Techniques

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