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Posts Tagged ‘‘Ilm’

The Command to Collate Knowledge

By al-Imaam fil-Hadith Ibn ‘Abdul Barr [1] رحمه الله


بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله


It is narrated from Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه:
“On the day of the Conquest of Makkah the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم gave a Khutbah (sermon). After the Khutbah a man from
Yemen, Abu Shaamah, stood up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم write this Khutbah for me.’ The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم later commanded some of his companions to write the khutbah for Abu Shaamah.”

Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه would say:
“From the (Ashaab) companions of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم no one had more Ahadeeth than me except Abdullaah Ibn Amr, Abdullaah Ibn Amr would write them down and I would not.”

It is narrated from Abdullaah Ibn Amr رضي الله عنه:
“Whatever I would hear from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم I would write it down but Quraysh prohibited me. They would say do not do this because the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم also gets angry sometimes. So upon this I stopped writing. Then one day I mentioned this to the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم, he pointed to his mouth with his index finger and said: ‘Write because I swear by him in whose hand my soul is in, nothing comes out of this mouth except the Haqq (truth).’

Abu Hudhayfah رضي الله عنه (d.64H) mentioned:
“I questioned the Leader of the believers Ali Ibn Abi Talib: ‘Is there anything specific written with the house of the Messenger of Allaah from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم apart from the Qur’aan.’
He replied: “No! I swear by Allaah, the one who put power in the wheat grain and created it, we have nothing. And Allaah may grant a specific understanding to someone. Yes there is this paper.”
I asked: ‘what is in this paper?’
He replied: ‘The freedom of a prisoner and not to kill a Muslim for a disbeliever.'”

It is proven from the Hadeeth that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم had rulings relating to Sadaqah, obligations and the sunnah written and passed onto Amr Ibn Hazm. [2]

It is narrated from Abu Ja’afar Muhammad Ibn Ali:
“From the Messenger of Allaah’s صلى الله عليه و سلم sword carrier we found a piece of paper on which it said, ‘The one who shows the blind person the wrong path is cursed, the thief of the land is cursed and the one who does not think of the favours upon him is cursed.’

Abdullaah Ibn Amr رضي الله عنه (d.65H) would say:
“I like two things that life has only installed for me: the first is the Saadqah that I wrote from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم and the second is “Waht”, the land which my father Amr Ibn Aas gave in charity.”

It is narrated from Anas Ibn Maalik رضي الله عنه (d.92H) that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:
“Write knowledge into books.”
A similar statement has been reported from Umar Ibn al-Khattab رضي الله عنه.

It is the statement of Ma’an that:
“Abdur Rahmaan showed him a writing and he swore, saying that it was written by the hands of his father Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood رضي الله عنه.”

It is the saying of Dhihaak:
“When you hear something then write it down, if you do not find anything [to write on], then even on a wall.”

Sa’id Ibn Jubair (d.95H) said:
“Whenever I was on journey with Ibn Abbaas رضي الله عنه I would write everything I would hear from him on a wooden plate and I would copy it on my return.”

It is the saying of Abu Qalaabah:
“Writing is better than forgetting.”

Abu Maleeh would say,
“There is objection on our books whereas Allaah سبخانه و تعالى says: ‘The knowledge about it is with my Lord.’

Abdul Azeez Ibn Muhammad Daarwardee said:
“Ibn Shihaab (Zuhree d.124H) was the first person to compile the Hadeeth.”

Abuz-Zeena said:
“We only used to write about the Ahkaam (rulings), Halaal (Lawful) and Haraam (unlawful) but Ibn Shihaab would write everything, later we found out he had the most knowledge.”

It is the statement of Mu’aawiyah Ibn Qurrah:
“The one who does not write, then do not consider him an Aalim (scholar).”

It is narrated concerning Hasan al-Basree (d.110H) that:
“He would not see anything wrong in writing the knowledge, but rather the people would write the lectures he would deliver on Tafseer.”

This saying of Hasan has been mentioned by Aa’maash:
“We had books that we would look at the same time.”

It is the statement of Khaleel Ibn Ahmad (d.170H):
“Whatever you write make it your Bait al-Maal (wealth) and that which you have gathered in your hearts then spend it.”

Hishaam said:
“My father Urwah’s books were burnt on the day of Hurrah.” Later he would say: “I wish those books remained with me rather than this wealth and money.”

Ishaaq Ibn Mansoor said:
“I asked Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal whether the writing of knowledge was disliked.” He replied: “Some have disliked it and some have said it is permissible.” I said: “If knowledge was not compiled then it would have been wasted.” He said: “Without doubt, if knowledge was not written then what would we be.”

It is narrated from Sa’eed Ibn Ibraaheem that:
“Umar Ibn Abdul Azeez gave us an order to compile the Sunnah, we compiled many books and he sent a copy of each to every country in his state.”

Imaam az-Zuhree (d.124H) would say:
“We disliked the writing of knowledge up until the Ruler left us no choice. Then this became our opinion that no Muslim shall be stopped from writing.”

And it is the saying of Khaleel Ibn Ahmad (d.170H) that:
“Whatever I heard, I wrote it and whatever I wrote, I learnt and whatever I learnt, I benefited from.”

Footnotes

[1] The Imaam of Hadeeth Abu Umar Yusuf Ibn Abdullaah Ibn Abdul Barr was from the city of Knowledge, Qurtubaa (Cordoba). He was born in 368H. He progressed the stages of knowledge and became the Imaam of his time. He also served time as a Qaadhi and died in the year 463H. He wrote many books, some of them were lost and some still remain. Apart from Tamheed the rest have not yet been printed. From his books, a high position is given to Jaami Bayaan al-Ilm Wa Fadlihee and al-Isteea’aab Fee Asma as-Sahabah.

[2]
When Amr Ibn Hazm رضي الله عنه was made Governor and sent to
Yemen, he was given written instructions and guidance. Not only did he protect the guidelines, he added 21 commands of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم and made it into the form of a book. [al-Wathaa’iq as-Siyaasah (p.105), Tabaree (p.104)]

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Blessings of Seeking Knowledge

Blessings of Seeking Knowledge

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله


Some ahadith/narrations regarding knowledge:

Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Verily people are going to come to you seeking knowledge, when you see them then tell them, ‘You are welcomed according to the testament of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم’”

Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “The scholars are inheritors of the Prophets. When the Prophets died they did not leave dinar or dirham but they left behind knowledge and whoever takes from this, has indeed taken a big portion.”

Safwan رضي الله عنه once came to Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلمand said, “O’ Messenger of Allah, I only came to seek knowledge!” Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم replied, “Welcome the student of knowledge!”

Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Allah سبحانه و تعالى hates all the scholars of this world and an ignorant of the hereafter.”

Hasan al Basri رحمه اللهinterpreted the du’a Rabbana Atina Fid Dunya Hasana as knowledge and worship, Wa Fil Aakhirah Hasana as Jannah

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Mu’adh ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه on Knowledge

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Excerpted from works by Ibn Taymiyyah and Abu Nu`aim

The Prophet sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam said about Mu`aadh ibn Jabal: “Verily, when the people of knowledge will be present before their Lord, the Mighty and Sublime, Mu`aadh will be one step ahead of them.” [Saheeh, Ibn Sa`d, Aboo Nu`aim, at-Tabaraanee]

He, sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, also said about Mu`aadh: “…the most knowledgeable of them [my Ummah] about the lawful and the prohibited is Mu`aadh bin Jabal…” [At-Tirmidhee, Ibn Hibbaan, ibn Maajah, al-Baihaqee, al-Haakim, who declared it Saheeh, and adh-Dhahabee and al-Albaanee agreed with him.]

Ibn Taymeeyah writes in al-Wasiyyah: “Part of Mu`aadh’s excellence further is that the Prophet, sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, sent him to the people of Yemen as a preacher on his behalf, a caller, a teacher of understanding in the Deen, a giver of religious verdicts, and a judge.”

This is Mu`aadh, radhiAllaahu ta`aalaa `anhu, to whom the Prophet, sallAllaahu `alayhi wa sallam, also said: “O Mu`aadh! By Allaah, truly I love you.” [Aboo Daawood, an-Nasaa’ee, ibn Hibbaa, Aboo Nu`aim, Ibn Khuzaimah and al-Haakim, who declared its isnaad to be saheeh, and adh-Dhaabee agreed]

Aboo Nu`aim reports some sayings of Mu`aadh himself about the excellence of knowledge, among which we find the following:

“Knowledge is a comforting friend in times of loneliness, it is the best companion during travels, and it is the inner friend who speaks to you in your privacy. Knowledge is the discerning proof of what is right and what is wrong, and it is the positive force that will help you surmount the trials of comfort, as well as those of hardships. Knowledge is your most powerful sword against your enemy, and finally, it is your most dignifying raiment in the company of your close companions.”

“Through knowledge, Allah, blessed be His Name, raises some people in rank, and He makes them leaders in righteousness and models in morality. The vestige of their faith is avidly sought, their deeds are emulated perceptively, and people will seek and sanction their opinions solicitously and unequivocally. The heavenly angels seek their company and anoint them with their wings, every fresh or withered life they pass by implore Almighty Allah to forgive them their sins, even the fish in the oceans, the beasts of the lands and every bird of prey and migratory bird pray and solicit the mercy of Almighty Allah on their behalf. This is because knowledge revives the dead hearts and drives them out of darkness into light, and because knowledge is the light of the inner eyes that cures one’s blindness and restores his inner sight.”

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The Dislike of the Salaf with Regards to Giving Religious Verdicts

By al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali رحمه الله

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

This is similar to the hatred of the Salafus-Saalih (the Pious Predecessors) that a person should put himself forward to give religious verdicts (fataawaa) and to crave them, and to hasten to it, and to do it in excess. Ibn Lahee`ah reports from `Ubaydullaah ibn Abee Ja`far in mursal form from the Prophet sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam that he said, “He who is boldest from you in giving religious verdicts, will be the boldest in proceeding to the Fire” [It is reported by ad-Daarimee 1/57 and its chain of narration is weak since it is mursal (i.e. there is a missing link or links between the last narrator and the Prophet sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam)]. `Alqamah said, “They used to say, ‘The boldest of you in giving religious verdicts is the one having the least knowledge.'”

Al-Baraa’ said, “I met a hundred and twenty of the Ansaar from the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger sallallahu `alayhi wa sallam and when one of them was asked about a matter there was not a single man amongst them except that he wished that his brother would suffice him (by answering).” [This saying is reported by ad-Daarimee (1/53) and Ibn `Abdul-Barr in Jaami` (2/163). However it is the saying of `Abdur-Rahmaan ibn Abee Laylaa and not the saying of al-Baraa`, and its chain of narration is saheeh. As for the saying of al-Baraa`, then it is, “I saw three hundred of the people of Badr, there was not a single one of them except that he loved that someone else should take his place in answering.” It is reported by Ibnul-Mubaarak in az-Zuhd (no. 58), ibn Sa`d (6/11) and others and its isnaad contains Aboo Ishaaq as-Sabee`ee who is acceptable (sadooq) except that he was mudallis and reports it without stating that he heard it directly.]In a narration there occurs the addition, “…so this one would refer it to another, and he would refer it to someone else until it would eventually return to the first one.” From Ibn Mas`ood, radiyallaahu `anhu, who said, “The one who gives a religious verdict to the people about everything that he is asked is indeed insane.” [Reported by Ibn `Abdul-Barr (2/164-165), al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/197-198) and Aboo Khaithamah in al-`Ilm (no. 10) and its chain of narration is saheeh.]

`Umar ibn `Abdul-`Azeez was asked about a question and replied, “I am not one who is bold about giving religious verdicts.” He also wrote to one of his governors, “By Allaah I am not one who craves after giving religious verdicts, as long as I can find a way to avoid it.”

Ibn Yameenah said, “This affair is not for those who love that the people should have need of them, rather this affair is only for those who love that someone can be found to take their place.” It is also reported from him that he said, “The most knowledgeable of people concerning religious verdicts is the one who is most often silent, and the most ignorant of people about them is the one who speaks the most with regard to them.” [Reported by al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/166) and its isnaad is weak.]

Sufyaan ath-Thawree said, “We reached the scholars and they used to hate answering questions and giving religious verdicts until they could find no way out except to give a verdict, but if they were relieved of having to do so then that was more beloved to them.”

Imaam Ahmad said, “He who puts himself forward to give religious verdicts has put himself forward to something very serious, unless he is forced through necessity.” It was said to him, “Then which is better: for him to speak or to remain silent?” He said, “It is more beloved to us that he should withhold.” It was said, “But if there is a necessity?” So he started saying, “Necessity! Necessity!” And he said, “It is safer for him to withhold.”

So those who give religious verdicts should realise that they are transmitting Allaah’s orders and prohibitions and that he will be made to stand to account and be questioned about it. Ar-Rabee` ibn Khaitham said, “O giver of religious verdicts! Look and see how you are giving verdicts.” `Amr ibn Deenaar said to Qataadah when he sat to give religious verdicts, “Do you realise the affair that you have fallen into? You have come between Allaah and His worshippers and say, ‘This is correct and this is not correct.'” [Reported by al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/168)]From Ibnul-Munkadir who said, “The scholar enters between Allaah and His creation, so let him look and see how he enters between them.” [Reported with variations in wording by ad-Daarimee (1/53), and al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/168) and its isnaad is saheeh.]

When Ibn Seereen was asked about anything pertaining to the permissible and forbidden his colour would change and he would alter so that he would not seem to be the same person. [Reported by ibn Sa`d (7/195), al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/167) and its isnaad is saheeh]. When an-Nakhaa`ee was asked about something then hatred would be seen upon his face and he would say, “Could you not find someone else to ask other than me?” He also said, “I spoke and if I had found any way out I would not have spoken, and indeed a time when I am the scholar of Koofah is an evil time.” [Reported in meaning by Aboo Khaithamah in al-`Ilm (no. 131).]

It is related that Ibn `Umar, radiyAllaahu `anhumaa, said, “You ask us for religious verdicts in such a manner that it is as if we are people who are not going to be questioned about the verdicts that we give you.” [Reported by al-Fasawee (1/490) and al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/168) and its isnaad is weak.] Also from Muhammad ibn Waasi` who said, “The first of those who will be called to account are the scholars.” It is reported about Maalik, radiyAllaahu `anhu, that when he was asked about a matter it was as if he were standing between the Paradise and the Hell-Fire. [Reported by al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/167) and its isnaad is weak.]

One of the scholars also said to a person who used to give religious verdicts, “When you are asked about a matter then do not let your concern be to release and find a way out for the questioner, but rather to release and save your own self.” [The one who said this was `Umar ibn Khaldah az-Zurqee and he was speaking to Rabee`ah ibn Abee `Abdir-Rahmaan. This narration is reported with very close wordings by al-Fasawee (1/556-557), Aboo Nu`aym in al-Hilyah (3/260-261) and al-Khateeb in al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih (2/169) and its isnaad is saheeh.]Another said, “If you are asked about a matter then consider – if you find a way out of it then speak, otherwise remain silent.” The sayings of the Salaf about this are too many to quote and gather.

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The Indications of Beneficial Knowledge

By Shaykh Hussain al-Awaa’ishah رحمه الله

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Everything has its indications and signs. Indications that knowledge is beneficial are that it leads to fine character, good manners and praiseworthy attributes. In this regard it was said: “He whose knowledge doesn’t cause him to weep, can be justifiably considered not to have been granted beneficial knowledge, since Allaah described the people of knowledge saying:

‘Say believe in it (the Qur’aan) or do not believe. Verily! Those who were given knowledge before it, when it is recited to them, fall down on their faces in humble prostration. And they say: “Glory be to our Lord! Truly, the Promise of our Lord must be fulfilled.” And they fall down on their faces weeping and it adds to their humility.’” [Al-Israa’ (17):107-109]

Thus knowledge carries its possessor towards humility, prostration, crying, calling oneself to account and truthfulness with Allaah.

Indeed crying is the clearest sign and best proof of the knowledge one possesses and of a person’s truthfulness. What is the benefit of knowledge a person learns, if it doesn’t lead him to crying, humbleness, penitence and good dealings with the people?

Is not the possessor of knowledge one who knows most about his Lord? Has he not read about His Exalted, Perfect, Lofty Attributes that which causes his heart to humble and his eyes to shed tears? Has he not read in the Book of Allaah and in the sayings of the Messenger of Allaah, sallAllahu `alayhi wa sallam, texts pertaining to the Fire, the terror in the grave and the fearful accounts of the Resurrection because of which mountains are humbled out of the fear of Allaah?

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