Posts Tagged ‘Monotheism’

Lum‘atul I‘tiqaad

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Insha’Allah I am going to post notes of this book from its lecture series

About the Author:

  • This book on ‘Aqeedah was authored by al-Muwaffaq Shaykh-ul-Islam Abu Muhammad ibn ‘AbduLlah ibn Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Qudaamah ibn Miqdam ibn Nasr ibn ‘AbduLlah al-Maqdisi ad-Dimashqi as-Saalihi al-Faqih رحمه الله

  • He was an Imaam in knowledge as well as actions.

  • It was said regarding him, “مَنْ رَأَىهُ كَأَنٌهُ رَأى بَعْدَ الصٌحَابَه” “Whoever saw him, it was as though he saw some of the companions.”

  • Some ‘Ulamaa’ trace his lineage to the son of ‘AbduLlah ibn ‘Umar, Saalim رضي الله عنهم and thus he is also known as ‘Umari.

  • He was born 541H, in the month of Sha‘ban in the village Jama‘eel in Palestine.

  • He travelled to Damascus with his family when he was 10 years and when the Muslims were beaten by the Crusaders. There he memorised the Qur`an & some of the books concerning certain Islamic Sciences.

  • He, then, travelled to Baghdad in the year 561H along with his maternal cousin who later on became to be known as al-Haafidh Taqi-ud-Deen ‘Abdul Ghani ibn ‘Abdul Waahid al-Jama‘eeli رحمه الله

  • His cousin was known for his knowledge in Fiqh but more specifically in Hadith

  • Imaam Ibn Qudaamah رحمه الله studied for 4 years in Baghdad under some famous scholars then he returned to Damascus.

  • He studied Fiqh until he surpassed his companions & became known to be one of the most knowledgeable scholars. Amongst them were ‘Abdul Qadir al-Jilani, Nasih al-Islam Abul Fath Nasr ibn Fatiyan also known as Ibn al-Manna رحمهم الله

  • Amongst his many students were Shihab ad-Deen Abu Shamah al-Maqdisi (d. 665H), al-Haafidh Dhaki-ud-Deen Abu Muhammad al-Mundhiri (d.656H) رحمهم الله

  • Sayings of Scholars regarding Imam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi رحمه الله:

    1. Ibn Salah al-Shahrazuri رحمه الله said, “I haven’t seen anyone like him.”
    2. Ibn Taymiyyah رحمه الله said, “No one has entered ash-Shaam since al-Imaam al Awza‘ee who was more knowledgeable in Fiqh than al-Muwaffaq.”
    3. Al-Mundhiri رحمه الله (his student) said, “The great Imaam and Faqih.”
    4. Ad-Dhahabi رحمه الله said, “One of the great, well-known Imaam and he is a person who was authored many books.”
    5. Ibn Kathir رحمه الله said, “Shaykh-ul-Islam Imaam ‘Aalim. There was no one in his or even long before his time more knowledgeable in Fiqh than him.”
    6. Dhia’ al-Maqdisi رحمه الله said, “He was an Imaam in Qur`an and its Tafseer. Imaam in Hadith and its intricate knowledge, Fiqh & Usool al-Fiqh, study of inheritance and Arabic language.”
    7. Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali رحمه الله mentioned, “He has authored many books particularly books of Hanbali Fiqh, its fundamentals as well its branches, books in Hadith, Usool ad-Deen (i.e. ‘Aqeedah).”
  • Books dealing with Fiqh:

1. Al-‘Umdah: a book that was designed for the beginners in Fiqh. In this book he mentions the well-known opinion of the Hanbali Madhhab (only one opinion)

2. Al-Muqn‘a: in this book more than one opinion of the Hanbali Madhhab was mentioned (two opinions) so that the student would choose the stronger opinion.

3. Al-Kaafi: more advanced and detailed book in 4 volumes.

4. Al-Mughni: in this, the author mentioned the opinions of Hanbali Madhhab and the opinions of the other 3 Madhhahib and this book is in 10 volumes.

  • Books dealing with ‘Aqeedah:

1. Al-Qadar (Divine Decree)

2. Dham-ut-Ta’weel (Blameworthiness of Interpretation of the Names of Allah سبحانه وتعالى)

3. Lum‘atul I‘tiqaad

4. Al-‘Uloow

  • Book dealing with Usool al-Fiqh:

Rawdat an-Naadhir wa Jannat-ul-Munaadhir

  • Books dealing with Zuhd:

1. Al Ruqqah wal Bukkah

2. At-Tawwabeen

  • Book dealing with Hadith:

Mukhtasar ‘Illal-ul-Hadith Lil Khallal (concerns with uncovering the hidden defects within Ahadith)

  • Imaam Ibn Qudaamah رحمه الله passed away on the day of ‘Eid al-Fitr in 620H and was buried in Damascus near the Grand Masjid of the people of Hanbali Madhhab.

Principles of Tawheed of Asmaa’ was Sifaat:

1) Obligation towards the Qur`an and Sunnah that mentions the Name or the Attributes of Allah سبحانه و تعالى: We leave to those texts as they are accepting whatever they indicate according to their apparent meaning. Changing it from its obvious meaning is entering into “Al Qawl `Ala Allah Bila `Ilm” “Saying something regarding Allah سبحانه و تعالى without knowledge.”

Proof: Say (O Muhammad (SAW)): “(But) the things that my Lord has indeed forbidden are Al­Fawâhish (great evil sins, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.) whether committed openly or secretly, sins (of all kinds), unrighteous oppression, joining partners (in worship) with Allâh for which He has given no authority, and saying things about Allâh of which you have no knowledge.”

قُلْ إِنَّمَا حَرَّمَ رَبِّيَ الْفَوَاحِشَ مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا وَمَا بَطَنَ وَالْإِثْمَ وَالْبَغْيَ بِغَيْرِ الْحَقِّ وَأَنْ تُشْرِكُوا بِاللَّهِ مَا لَمْ يُنَزِّلْ بِهِ سُلْطَانًا وَأَنْ تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ مَا لَا تَعْلَمُونَ

{Surah al-A`raf, ayah# 33}

2) Names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى: – The Names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى are all perfect

Proof: “And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allâh سبحانه و تعالى, so call on Him by them, and leave the company of those who belie or deny (or utter impious speech against) His Names. They will be requited for what they used to do”.

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ وَذَرُوا الَّذِينَ يُلْحِدُونَ فِي أَسْمَائِهِ ۚ سَيُجْزَوْنَ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ

{Surah al-A`raf, ayah# 180}

On the authority of Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Don’t speak abusively against Time for verily Allah سبحانه و تعالى is Time.” [Sahih Muslim]

Meaning: As reported from other authentic hadith in which the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Don’t speak abusively against Time for verily Allah سبحانه و تعالى has said, ‘The days and the nights belong to me. I renew them as I like and cause them to go away as I like.’” [Musnad Imam Ahmad] What means here is that He سبحانه و تعالى is the one who controls the time

Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “…Allah سبحانه و تعالى said ‘In My Hand is the Command. I am the one who turns over the night and the day.’” [Sahihayn]

The Names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى are not limited to a particular number.

Proof: ‘AbduLlah ibn Mas‘ud رضي الله عنه reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “O’ Allah, I ask you by every name that belongs to you which you have named yourself with or what you have revealed in your Book or whatever you have taught any one of your creations and even those names that you have kept in the Knowledge of the Unseen.” [Musnad Imam Ahmad, Sahih Ibn Hibban, al-Mustadrak al-Hakim, al-Haafidh ibn Qayyim Shifaa’ al-‘Aleel, Hadith is Sahih]

The names in that are in the Knowledge on the Unseen are not possible for anyone to know. It is not known to the Prophets, nor the Angels and since it’s ‘Ilm-ul-Ghayb, only Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows them and no one else can.

How do we reconcile between the two Hadith in which we know the Allah سبحانه و تعالى has unlimited names whilst the other one (famously known) says that Allah سبحانه و تعالى has ninety-nine names?

Hadith about ninety-nine names:

Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Verily, Allah سبحانه و تعالى has ninety-nine names. Whoever memorises them, acts upon them (the word in Arabic is Ahsaaha) will enter Jannah.” [Sahihayn]

Meaning: Amongst His names there are ninety-nine names, if one memorises them and acts upon them, will enter Jannah.

3) It is not our right to name Allah سبحانه و تعالى based on our intellect nor to negate or deny the names that have been confirmed in Qur`an and authentic Sunnah

4) All the names of Allah سبحانه و تعالى point to His Divine Self. Every one of His names contain a Characteristic that is derived from that name and it is applicable only to Allah سبحانه و تعالى.

We do not attribute any Characteristic to Allah سبحانه و تعالى which is not perfect. But if there is some Characteristic that might be considered to be a characteristic of perfection from one perspective and from another perspective it might contain some aspect of imperfection then we do not consider such characteristic of Allah سبحانه و تعالى nor we deny negate or deny it. Rather we say that such Characteristic is to be looked at from both sides. If one in way it is perfect, we apply it to Allah سبحانه و تعالى but if it does not in another sense, then we do not apply it.

Example: “And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you (O Muhammad SAW) to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from your home, i.e. Makkah); they were plotting and Allâh too was planning, and Allâh is the Best of the planners”

وَإِذْ يَمْكُرُ بِكَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لِيُثْبِتُوكَ أَوْ يَقْتُلُوكَ أَوْ يُخْرِجُوكَ ۚ وَيَمْكُرُونَ وَيَمْكُرُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَاللَّهُ خَيْرُ الْمَاكِرِينَ.

{Surah al-An`aam, ayah# 30}

The characteristic of Makra (planning) is only used in the Qur`an in response to the disbelievers when they are plotting and planning against Islam and Allah سبحانه و تعالى plans against them and He is the best of planners.

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