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Posts Tagged ‘Muslim Spain’

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم
السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته
الحمد الله


Imām Al Qurṭubī
رحمهالله wrote in his book, Tadhkirat Al Qurṭubī the lessons to be taken from death,

“Think, O’ you who are deceived by this world, of death and its agonies, how difficult and bitter a cup it is. What a true promise death is! How fair a judge it is! Death is enough to fill the heart with fear and the eyes with tears, to separate people, destroy pleasure and put an end to all worldly hopes.

Have you given any thought, O’ son of Adam, to the day when you will die and will be taken out of your place? When you will move from spaciousness (of this world) to the confines (of the grave), when friends and loved ones will let you down, and brothers and friends will desert you? When you will be taken from your bed and placed in a hole in the ground, and instead of a soft blanket you will be covered with dust and earth? O’ gatherer of wealth, O’ industrious builder, by Allah you will have nothing left of your possessions except shrouds, and even they will be destroyed and will vanish as your body disintegrates and turns to dust.

Where is the wealth that you amassed? Will it save you from these terrors? No indeed, you have left it behind for those who will not praise you, and you have come with your burdens (of sin) to One Who will not excuse you.

Imagine yourself, O’ you who have been deceived by this world, when the agony of death and stupor of death overwhelms you, and you start moaning in the throes of death. There will some who will say, ‘So and so has made a will, and his wealth has been calculated,’ others will say, ‘So and so can no longer speak, he does not recognise his neighbours and he does not speak to his brothers.’ It is as if I can see you listening to these words and unable respond. Imagine yourself, O’ son of Adam, being taken from your bed to the place where your body will be washed and shrouded, and being forsaken by your family and neighbours, wept over y your friends and brothers. Imagine the one who has washed your body saying, ‘Where is the wife of So and so to forgive him? Where are the orphans? Your father has left you and you will never see him again after this day.’

Where is the wealth that you have gathered and prepared for hardship and terror? There is no money in your hand when you are dying. The wealth and pride that you enjoyed have been replaced with humiliation and poverty. What has become of you, O prisoner of your burdens, O’ you who have been taken away from your family and your home?

What was it that concealed the right path from you, and caused you to have no interest in making provision for your long journey and time of difficulty? Did you not know, O’ you who were deceived by this world, that this journey to the Day of intense horror was inevitable, when the time spent gossip would be to no avail? That is the Day when you are standing before the Sovereign, the Judge, and the blows struck by your hands, the places where feet took you, the words uttered by your tongue, the actions of all your limbs and faculties, will be counted against you. If Allah has mercy on you, you will go to Paradise, otherwise you will go to the Fire of Hell.

O’ negligent one who ignores these matters, how long will this negligence last? How long will you delay? O you think that the issue is insignificant? Do you think that the matter is easy? Do you think that your situation will help you when it is time for you to depart? Or that your wealth will save you when your actions condemn you? Or that your regret will help you when your feet are slipping? Or that your friends will show you any sympathy when you are gathered (for judgement)? No, by Allah, you are wrong in your thinking, and you will inevitably come to know the reality. You are not content with enough, you never have your fill of that which is haram, you do not listen to lessons, you are not deterred by warnings. You persist in following desires and you go about your life without guidance. You are happy with the things that you have accumulated but you do not think what lies ahead. O’ you who are sleeping unawares, wandering without guidance, for how long will the neglect last? Do you think you will be left alone and let off, and that you will not brought to account tomorrow? Or do you think that death can be bribed? Or do you think that death distinguishes between gazelle and lion?

No, by Allah, wealth and sons can never ward off death from you. Nothing can benefit those who will be forgiven except righteous deeds. So good news to those who listen and understand, who practise what they preach, and are deterred from following their whims and desires, those who know that the victor is the one who pays heed, and that man will have he has striven for. So wake up from this negligence, and make righteous deeds the provision with which you equip yourselves. Do not wish to attain the status of the righteous when you are weighted down with the burden (of sin), doing immoral deeds, when Allah is watching you even when you are alone. Do not be so deceived by hopes and wishes that you neglect to strive. One poet said,

Take provision from this life to help yourself in the Hereafter.

Strive for the sake of Allah and do good deeds.

Do no accumulate too much in this world,

For that accumulation will eventually diminish.

Would you like to accompany people

Who have provision when you do not?”

And indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

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The Command to Collate Knowledge

By al-Imaam fil-Hadith Ibn ‘Abdul Barr [1] رحمه الله


بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله


It is narrated from Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه:
“On the day of the Conquest of Makkah the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم gave a Khutbah (sermon). After the Khutbah a man from
Yemen, Abu Shaamah, stood up and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم write this Khutbah for me.’ The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم later commanded some of his companions to write the khutbah for Abu Shaamah.”

Abu Hurairah رضي الله عنه would say:
“From the (Ashaab) companions of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم no one had more Ahadeeth than me except Abdullaah Ibn Amr, Abdullaah Ibn Amr would write them down and I would not.”

It is narrated from Abdullaah Ibn Amr رضي الله عنه:
“Whatever I would hear from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم I would write it down but Quraysh prohibited me. They would say do not do this because the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم also gets angry sometimes. So upon this I stopped writing. Then one day I mentioned this to the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم, he pointed to his mouth with his index finger and said: ‘Write because I swear by him in whose hand my soul is in, nothing comes out of this mouth except the Haqq (truth).’

Abu Hudhayfah رضي الله عنه (d.64H) mentioned:
“I questioned the Leader of the believers Ali Ibn Abi Talib: ‘Is there anything specific written with the house of the Messenger of Allaah from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم apart from the Qur’aan.’
He replied: “No! I swear by Allaah, the one who put power in the wheat grain and created it, we have nothing. And Allaah may grant a specific understanding to someone. Yes there is this paper.”
I asked: ‘what is in this paper?’
He replied: ‘The freedom of a prisoner and not to kill a Muslim for a disbeliever.'”

It is proven from the Hadeeth that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم had rulings relating to Sadaqah, obligations and the sunnah written and passed onto Amr Ibn Hazm. [2]

It is narrated from Abu Ja’afar Muhammad Ibn Ali:
“From the Messenger of Allaah’s صلى الله عليه و سلم sword carrier we found a piece of paper on which it said, ‘The one who shows the blind person the wrong path is cursed, the thief of the land is cursed and the one who does not think of the favours upon him is cursed.’

Abdullaah Ibn Amr رضي الله عنه (d.65H) would say:
“I like two things that life has only installed for me: the first is the Saadqah that I wrote from the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم and the second is “Waht”, the land which my father Amr Ibn Aas gave in charity.”

It is narrated from Anas Ibn Maalik رضي الله عنه (d.92H) that the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم said:
“Write knowledge into books.”
A similar statement has been reported from Umar Ibn al-Khattab رضي الله عنه.

It is the statement of Ma’an that:
“Abdur Rahmaan showed him a writing and he swore, saying that it was written by the hands of his father Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood رضي الله عنه.”

It is the saying of Dhihaak:
“When you hear something then write it down, if you do not find anything [to write on], then even on a wall.”

Sa’id Ibn Jubair (d.95H) said:
“Whenever I was on journey with Ibn Abbaas رضي الله عنه I would write everything I would hear from him on a wooden plate and I would copy it on my return.”

It is the saying of Abu Qalaabah:
“Writing is better than forgetting.”

Abu Maleeh would say,
“There is objection on our books whereas Allaah سبخانه و تعالى says: ‘The knowledge about it is with my Lord.’

Abdul Azeez Ibn Muhammad Daarwardee said:
“Ibn Shihaab (Zuhree d.124H) was the first person to compile the Hadeeth.”

Abuz-Zeena said:
“We only used to write about the Ahkaam (rulings), Halaal (Lawful) and Haraam (unlawful) but Ibn Shihaab would write everything, later we found out he had the most knowledge.”

It is the statement of Mu’aawiyah Ibn Qurrah:
“The one who does not write, then do not consider him an Aalim (scholar).”

It is narrated concerning Hasan al-Basree (d.110H) that:
“He would not see anything wrong in writing the knowledge, but rather the people would write the lectures he would deliver on Tafseer.”

This saying of Hasan has been mentioned by Aa’maash:
“We had books that we would look at the same time.”

It is the statement of Khaleel Ibn Ahmad (d.170H):
“Whatever you write make it your Bait al-Maal (wealth) and that which you have gathered in your hearts then spend it.”

Hishaam said:
“My father Urwah’s books were burnt on the day of Hurrah.” Later he would say: “I wish those books remained with me rather than this wealth and money.”

Ishaaq Ibn Mansoor said:
“I asked Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal whether the writing of knowledge was disliked.” He replied: “Some have disliked it and some have said it is permissible.” I said: “If knowledge was not compiled then it would have been wasted.” He said: “Without doubt, if knowledge was not written then what would we be.”

It is narrated from Sa’eed Ibn Ibraaheem that:
“Umar Ibn Abdul Azeez gave us an order to compile the Sunnah, we compiled many books and he sent a copy of each to every country in his state.”

Imaam az-Zuhree (d.124H) would say:
“We disliked the writing of knowledge up until the Ruler left us no choice. Then this became our opinion that no Muslim shall be stopped from writing.”

And it is the saying of Khaleel Ibn Ahmad (d.170H) that:
“Whatever I heard, I wrote it and whatever I wrote, I learnt and whatever I learnt, I benefited from.”

Footnotes

[1] The Imaam of Hadeeth Abu Umar Yusuf Ibn Abdullaah Ibn Abdul Barr was from the city of Knowledge, Qurtubaa (Cordoba). He was born in 368H. He progressed the stages of knowledge and became the Imaam of his time. He also served time as a Qaadhi and died in the year 463H. He wrote many books, some of them were lost and some still remain. Apart from Tamheed the rest have not yet been printed. From his books, a high position is given to Jaami Bayaan al-Ilm Wa Fadlihee and al-Isteea’aab Fee Asma as-Sahabah.

[2]
When Amr Ibn Hazm رضي الله عنه was made Governor and sent to
Yemen, he was given written instructions and guidance. Not only did he protect the guidelines, he added 21 commands of the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه و سلم and made it into the form of a book. [al-Wathaa’iq as-Siyaasah (p.105), Tabaree (p.104)]

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

When the Christian took over the Muslim Spain, the last place left under the Muslims was Grenada. And the ruler of Grenada, Abu Muhammad, signed a treaty with the Christians that they would not forcefully convert Muslims and they would not oppress them. But as soon the Christians got hold of Grenada, they went and hung up a cross on the top of the Hamra Palace. When Abu Muhammad saw this he started crying and then his mother rebuked him by saying, “Why are you crying like a woman when you didn’t defend like a man!”

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