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Posts Tagged ‘Tafsir AlQurtubi’

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Continuing from the last time insha’Allah

Ayah 6:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

“Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.”

There are three opinions to whom this ayah refers to:

1) Jews of Madinah who knew the truth and lied against Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما] [36]

2) Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم wished that all people would believe but Allah سبحانه وتعالى had informed him that only for those whom He willed guidance would believe.

3) About the people Allah سبحانه وتعالى mentions,

“Have you not seen those who have changed the Blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction? Hell, in which they will burn, – and what an evil place to settle in!”

They were the one killed in Battle of Badr.

In conclusion, Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله supported the opinions 1 & 2 and gave the reason,

“Because this follows Allah سبحانه و تعالى’s speaking about the believers amongst the people of Scripture thus it’s more appropriate that there should follow description about kuffar from them.” [37]


Ayah 7:

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

“Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah’s Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.”

The original meaning of khatama is to impress (strike) [38]

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ

As usual there also two opinions regarding this:

1) Al A’mash رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid showed us by using his hand and said, ‘Our Companions considered the heart like this’ i.e.; the palm of the hand. ‘When the servant commits a sin, a part of it is closed up’ and he demonstrated by curling up his little finger like this – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger like this, until he had curled up all his fingers. He said, ‘Then it is impressed with a seal.’ ‘They also considered this to be the “stain”’

Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid said, ‘I was informed that sins surround the heart on various sided until they merge round about it. This merging round it is the impress, and the impress is the seal.

Also Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “’Abd Allah bin Kathir said he heard Mujahid say, ‘The “stain” is less serious that the “seal”, the “seal” is less serious than the “locks”, the “locks” (refer to 47:24) are more severe than of all of these.”

2) Some of them said that the meaning of His words “Allah has set a seal on their hearts” is that it is a message from Allah about their arrogance, and their aversion to listening to the truth they were summoned to, as when one says that a person is deaf to what someone says when he refuses to listen to it and arrogantly makes up his mind not to understand it.

Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله’s opinion as a conclusion,

“The truth in this matter, according to me, is what accords with the truth of the report from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم:

‘When the believer commits a sin there is a black spot in his heart. If he repents, renounces it, and asks forgiveness, this polishes his heart. But if he compounds his sin, the point grows bigger till it lock his heart, and this is the stain (raan)which Allah سبحانه و تعالى speaks of. “Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering of sins and evil deeds) which they used to earn.” [39] [40]

Al-Qurtubi رحمه اللهsaid, “The Ummah has agreed that Allah has described Himself with sealing and closing the hearts of the disbelievers, as a punishment for their disbelief” [41]

وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ

In Arabic, ghishawah means ‘covering’ for the stamp is placed on the heart and the hearing while the ghishawah, the covering, is appropriately placed on the eyes. [42]

وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Theirs is a mighty chastisement for their opposition to you [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم]. This concerns the Jewish Rabbis and concerns the truth which came to you from your Lord which they denied after they had knowledge.” [43]

References:

[36] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[37] Tafsir AlTabari

[38] Tafsir AlTabari

[39] Qur`an AlKareem {83:14}

[40] Tafsir AlTabari

[41] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[42] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[43] Tafsir AlTabari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته


Ayah 4:

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ


And who believe in which has been sent down (to you) and in which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter.”

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ:


There are two opinions regarding who this phrase is referred to:

  1. They are the believers from people of Scripture [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of companions رضي الله عنهم ] [25]
  2. They believe in what Allah (SWT) sent you (Muhammad (SAWS)) with and in previous Messengers and they do not distinguish between them, nor do they reject what they brought from their Lord. [opinion of Ibn Kathir رحمه الله] [26]

The stronger and most correct opinion if of the Sahabah
رضي الله عنهم


أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ is the Qur`an [27]

وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ:

There are two reasons why the hereafter is called the آخِرَةِ:

  1. Because it is preceded by this dunya
  2. Because of its deferment (ta’akhkhur) after creation just as this world is called the dunya because of its proximity (dunoow) to the creation. [28]

الْآخِرَةِ means:

  1. Resurrection
  2. Paradise
  3. Hell
  4. Reckoning
  5. Weighing of good and bad deeds [29]

يُوقِنُونَ means belief without any doubt [30]

Ayah 5:

أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ


“They are those on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.”


There are two opinions regarding who this ayah is referred to:

  1. They are the believers amongst the ‘Arabs. [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم]
  2. They are the people of Scripture

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله presented his opinion as a conclusion,

“In our view, the best interpretation is that reported from ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and that “They are those…”refers to both groups.” [31]

أُولَـٰئِكَ refers to those who believe in the Unseen, establish prayer, spend from what Allah (SWT) provided them, prepare for the necessary requirements for the hereafter by performing good deeds and avoid the prohibitions. [32]

عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Who proceed according to a lightfrom their Lord and go straight forward according to what came to them.”[33]

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al’Uthaymeen رحمه الله writes in his Tafsir,

“Their treading upon it like they are hurrying up on a clear and unambiguous path, they don’t have any doubt. You would see them accepting righteous deeds like a lamp in front find them, for example, looking in the secrets of the Shari’ah of Allah سبحانه تعالى and its wisdom knowing from it which is hidden from most people. You would also find them experiencing AlQadhaa’ wa AlQadr as if they are witnessing the command in their favour even though they are being afflicted with something that is harming them or being of evil nature. They see that in their favour because Allah سبحانه وتعالى has indeed illuminated for them the path so they are guidance from their Lord. Guidance is like ride saving them from destruction or a ship salvaging them from drowning.”

مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:


Their Creator, Planner of their affairs [34]

وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ:


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “It means those who attain what they seek and are delivered from the evil they flee.” [35]


And Allah
سبحانه وتعالى knows best.


References:


[25] Tafsir AlTabari

[26] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[27] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[28] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[29] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[30] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[31] Tafsir AlTabari

[32] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[33] Tafsir AlTabari

[34] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[35] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 3:

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

“Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them”

الَّذِينَ is used for the Muttaqeen

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ :

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “They attest to its truth.”

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud رضي الله عنه said, “Belief is attesting to the truth.”

Al Rabi’ رحمه الله said, “Those who fear.”

AlZuhri رحمه الله said, “Belief is action.” [17]

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ

There are three opinions regarding to whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى is referring in this ayah:

These are ‘Arabs (former mushrikeen) who believed in the Unseen. [Opinion of ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah ibn ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah]

The ayaat 2:2-5 are talking about Ahl AlKitaab

This ayah and the other 3 ayaat are talking about Arabs and non-‘Arabs, People of Scripture and others.

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله goes onto mention his the opinion he thinks is to be the most correct one by saying,

“In my view, the opinion most likely to be correct, and the most suitable for the interpretation of the Book, is the first, that those whom Allah سبحانه و تعالى described as believing in the Unseen… are not those whom He described as believing in what was sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم and what was sent down to Messengers before him. They justified their opinion by using the ayah that follows these two verses, “And who believe in which has been sent down to you and in which were sent down before you.” They said that the Arabs had no scripture whose truth they professed, which they acknowledged, and according to which they acted, before the Book which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم. “[18]

أَلْغَيْب:

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said,” What is concealed from the servants of the affair of Jannah and Jahannam, and what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned in the Qur`an.”

Zirr رحمه الله said, “The Unseen is the Qur`an”

AlRabi’ bin Anas رحمه الله said, “They believe in Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, and the Last Day, His Jannah and Jahannam, and in the Meeting with Him. They believe in the life after death. All of this is Unseen.”

وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “The performance of the Salah is all the ruku’ (bowing), sujud (prostrating), tilaawah (recitation), khushu’ (humility and submission) and iqbaal (attentiveness) to it.” [19]

AlQurtubi رحمه الله said, “Praying with its arkaan (pillars), sunan, and on its prescribed time.” [20]

Establishing means not just praying alone rather setting up the environment of Salah and praying in congregation.

رَزَقْنَاهُمْ

This means spending neither in extravagance nor being a miser but in between as Allah سبحانه و تعالى has said,



وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ قَوَامًا

“And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” [21]

It should be spent on:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

“They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and AlMasakin and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.” [22] [23] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ:

There are two opinions regarding the meaning of what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned,”…spend out…

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said,” They give zakah, thereby seeking the reward of the Hereafter.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said, “It is a man’s expenditure on his family. This was what it meant before the obligations of zakah were revealed.”‘

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله concludes by saying,

“The best interpretation of the verse, the most appropriate to the description of these people, is that they disbursed all that they had to from their possessions, whether it was zakah or necessary expenditure for any relatives, dependants or others for whom they were obliged to lay out expenditure for drawing near (to Allah سبحانه و تعالى), for (securing) property, or whatever…”[24]

References:

[17] Tafsir AlTabari

[18] Tafsir AlTabari

[19] Tafsir AlTabari

[20] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[21]Qur`an AlKareem {25:67}

[22]Qur`an AlKareem {2:215}

[23]Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

[24] Tafsir AlTabari


And indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes and accept the effort to spread His Deen Ameen

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم


الحمد الله

Just in case someone thought this tafsir is going to be short, continuation of the same ayah:

There are many meanings given by the ‘ulamaa’ for the word Muttaqeen :


AlHasan AlBasri
رحمه الله said, “Who fear what they have been forbidden and fulfill what has been imposed upon them.”


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas
رضي الله عنهما said, “Those who guard themselves from Allah سبحانه وتعالى;s punishment lest they abandon the guidance they are aware of and who hope His mercy for affirming the truth.”


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud
رضي الله عنهم said, “Those who are the believers (mu’minin).”


Qatadah
رحمه الله said, “They are those whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى has characterised and described, and then has confirmed their qualities, saying, ”Who believe in the Ghaib and establish As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them.’


AlKalbi
رحمه الله said, “Those who keep away from major sins.” [15]

It was said, “They are those who love Allah سبحانه وتعالى with their heart.”


Abu Sulaiman AlDaraani
رحمه الله said, “Those who fear shirk and nifaaq.”


Ibn Mu’taz
رحمه الله said, “Abandoning sins, both minor and major, that is piety. Do as the one, who walks across thorny terrain, he is wary of that which he sees. Do no look down on any minor (sin) – indeed, mountains are made up of pebbles.” [16]



May Allah سبحانه وتعالى accept my effort to spread His Deen. May Allah سبحانه وتعالى make us amongst the Muttaqeen. Ameen

References:


[15] Tafsir AlTabari

[16] Tafsir AlQurtubi

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله


After I attended the Breach of Covenant seminar, which was Tafsir of Surat AlBaqarah Juzz’ 1, held by AlMaghrib institute, I decided to go over the notes along with other Tafasir such as Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir AlTabari, Tafsir AlQurtubi, Tafsir AlJalalayn, Tafsir Mujahid and Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an and will insha’Allah post notes from them as I continue:

Ayah 1:


الم


“Alif, Laam, Meem.”


These letters are known as Huroof Al Muqatta’aat or disjointed letters. Their meanings are known to no one save Allah
سبحانه وتعالى. They form the first (in some cases second) ayah (tayn) of 29 Suwaar (sing. Surah). 14 of the 28 Arabic letters have been used for this purpose.


There are many opinions given by the ‘ulamaa’ of the Salaf on the meaning of this ayah but the correct answer would be to say that Allah
سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله mentions probably the reason why Allah سبحانه وتعالىuses Huroof Al Muqatta’aat,” And others said instead that the beginnings of the Suwaar started with these letters because the polytheists, whose attitude was to avoid listening to the Qur`an, would prick up their ears when they heard them; then, whenever they gave ear, that which was composed of the letter would be recited to them.” And indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best. [1]

Ayah 2:

ذَ*ٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ


“This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun.”


The word
ذَٰلِكَ literally means that but it is understood as ‘this.’ There three opinions on why هَذَا is not used:

1)”This is possible because whatever has just been mentioned is referred to again is like something present to the person addressed, even though it may mean something which is not present. … It is thus with <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>>, because He, exalted is His remembrance, preceded <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>> with <<alif-lam-mim>> whose freedom in its various aspects to take on the kind of meanings we described has been mentioned – and then He said to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, this, which I have mentioned and made clear to you, is the Book.” Therefore, it was proper to put dhalik in place of hadha, because it indicates a reference to the meanings included in His saying <<alif-lam-mim>>. Since reference to it has just been made, it becomes like something present to the one it was pointed out to, so He referred to it by dhalik because of its having just been mentioned…” [2]

2)”It is also possible that His words <<This is the Book>> mean the Surahs which He sent down before the Surah of the Cow in both Makkah and Madinah. It is as if He were saying to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, whatever is contained in the Surahs which I have sent down to you is the Book in which there is no doubt.” Then the exegetes interpret it, giving dhalika the meaning, “This is the Book”, since these Surahs which were sent down before the Surah of Cow form the part of this whole Book of ours which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ” [3]

3)”That the Arabs sometimes referred to something that was close with the distant demonstrative, so this verse was merely employing the conventions of the language. This opinion was related by AlBukhari رحمه اللهfrom Mu’mar bin AlMuthnaa Abu Ubaydah رحمه اللهas stated by Ibn Kathir رحمه الله[4]

الْكِتَابُ is the Qur`an

لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ means:

1)There is no doubt in the Book [5]

2)It is used as a warning, “Do not doubt the Qur`an.” [6]

رَيْبَ has 3 meanings:

1)Doubt: what ignorant people say because they don’t exactly know

2)Suspicion: if something is authentic or nor

3)Deficiency: is something is lacking some important aspect[7]

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ:


Guidance is an attribute of the Qur`an [8[


‘AbduLlah Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud
رضي الله عنهم have said regarding this phrase, “Light for the Muttaqeen.” [9[


From this part of the ayah we understand many aspects of guidance:


1)Guidance is an attribute of Qur`an [10]

2)It is the type of guidance that when a person is blessed with he/she then conforms with AlIslam not like those who were given irshaad (guidance given by a person) but rejected it as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has said,

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَىٰ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ


“And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear to them the Path of Truth (Islamic Monotheism) through Our Messenger, (i.e. showed them the way of success), but they preferred blindness to guidance, so the Sa’iqah (a destructive awful cry, torment, hit, a thunderbolt) of disgracing torment seized them, because of what they used to earn.”
[11]


We made clear to them the
True Way upon the tongue of our Prophet Saalih, upon him and our Prophet be peace and blessings, despite the fact that they did not traverse this way as proven by His سبحانه وتعالى saying, “but they preferred blindness over guidance.”

And,

إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا


“Indeed, We guided him, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.” [12]

Meaning: We have made clear to him the Way of Good and the Way of Evil as proven by His saying, “whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”


Allah
سبحانه وتعالى is clarifying in this verse that the Qur`an is a guidance for those that fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى, and it is understood from the implications of this verse – from the opposite understanding of the verse – that this Qur’an is not a guidance for those who do not fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى. This understanding has been clarified in other verses, like His saying,

قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هُدًى وَشِفَاءٌ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ


Say: it is a guidance and healing for those who believe, as for those who do not believe there is a deafness in their ears and it is blindness for them”
[13[


And many other ayaat one can refer to (17:83), (9:124-125), (5:64-65)


There are two types of guidance:


1)General which is for everyone and is for the clarifying the Truth

2)Specific which is for the Muslims and it is acting upon the Truth [14[


References:


[1] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[2] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[3] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[4] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an [author: Shaykh Muhammad AlAmeen AlShinqitee رحمه الله]

[5] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[6] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[7] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[8] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[9] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir AlTabari

[10] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[11] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:17]

[12] AlQur`an AlKareem [76:3]

[13] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:44]

[14] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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Invite to your Lord…

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Da’wah is obligation upon us Muslims and the proof for this is where Allah سبحانه وتعالى has said,

ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ

“Invite (mankind, O Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم) to the Way of your Lord (i.e. Islam) with wisdom and fair preaching, and argue with them in a way that is best. Truly, your Lord knows best those who have gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are guided.” [1]

Points to be noted:

1) The ‘alifا mentioned in the first word of the ayah indicates that it is as we say in Arabic Grammar as fa’l amr which means a commanding action. This means that it is a commandment from Allah سحبانه وتعالى to us that we must call people to the religion of AlIslam.

2) Notice the word سَبيل,which means a way or path, is in singular form not dual or plural which shows that there is only one path of Allah سبحانه وتعالى which is AlIslam and all others are baatil (false)

3) We are commanded to invite people to AlIslam with Hikmah (wisdom). This word includes many aspects of calling people to AlIslam such as:

a) Using Qur`an

b) Using Sunnah of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم[2]

4) الْمَوْعِظَةِ meaning, with exhortation and stories of the events that happened to people that are mentioned in the Qur’an, which one is to tell them about in order to warn them of the punishment of Allah سبحانه وتعالى [3] Thus it means it is a prerequisite to use Hikmah in order to fair preaching. Using stories mentioned in the Qur`an for example, story of Nuh عليه السلام as Allah سبحانه وتعالى said,

قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُ قَوْمِي لَيْلًا وَنَهَارًا

“He (Nuh (AS)) said: “O my Lord! Verily, I have called my people night and day”[4]

We should understand from this ayah that a Da’ee (a person who gives calls others to Islam) should be patient when he/she is inviting others to AlIslam.

5) الْحَسَنَةِ means something which might be beneficial for a person or something for which a person might be thankful of later on. For example, if a non-Muslim accepts Islam by listening to a story or a parable from the Qur`an, he/she will be thankful for accepting Islam after listening to it.

6) جَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ meaning, if any of them want to debate and argue, then let that be in the best manner, with kindness, gentleness and good speech, as Allah سبحانه وتعالى says,

وَلاَ تُجَـدِلُواْ أَهْلَ الْكِتَـبِ إِلاَّ بِالَّتِى هِىَ أَحْسَنُ إِلاَّ الَّذِينَ ظَلَمُواْ مِنْهُمْ

“And do not argue with the People of the Book, unless it be with that which is best, except for those who purposefully do wrong.” [5]

Also Allah سبحانه وتعالى commanded Musa and Harun عليهما السلامto speak gently when He sent them to Pharaoh, as He سبحانه وتعالى said:

فَقُولاَ لَهُ قَوْلاً لَّيِّناً لَّعَلَّهُ يَتَذَكَّرُ أَوْ يَخْشَى

And speak to him mildly; perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (of Allah سبحانه وتعالى [6]

Even if one wants to do argue with them in a nice manner, he/she needs to use Hikmah.

7) أَحْسَنُ means best or something perfect. So whenever we must debate, it should be done in the best manner i.e. not insulting nor quarrelling but do it like RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم.

8) We also learn from this verse that there are two parts in giving Da’wah:

a) Preaching to them using good stories and lessons.

b) Refuting or arguing with them in a nice and gentle way.

9) Allah سبحانه وتعالى already knows the state of people. He سبحانه وتعالى knows who is destined for Jahannam and those for Jannah thus one should not feel remorseful for those people who have gone astray. Thus it is clear that our job is just to give them Irshaad (guidance by someone) whilst it is up to Allah سبحانه وتعالى to whom He gives Tawfeeq (guidance granted by Allah سبحانه وتعالى only) to be guided to AlIslam. As Allah سبحانه وتعالى says,

إِنَّكَ لاَ تَهْدِى مَنْ أَحْبَبْتَ

“You cannot guide whom you love” [7]

And also:

لَّيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُمْ وَلَـكِنَّ اللَّهَ يَهْدِى مَن يَشَآءُ

“It is not up to you to guide them, but Allah guides whom He wills.” [8] [9]

And, indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.


References:

[1]Qur`an AlKareem {16:125}

[2]Tafsir AlTabari

[3]Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[4]Qur`an AlKareem {71:5}

[5] Qur`an AlKareem {29:46}

[6]Qur`an AlKareem {20:44}

[7]Qur`an AlKareem {28:56}

[8]Qur`an AlKareem {2:272}

[9]Tafsir Ibn Kathir

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Want to be Amongst the Sabiqoon?

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Everyone knows the ayah in which Allah سبحانه وتعالى talks about the Sabiqoon by heart but not many people know what exactly the word Sabiq (pl. Sabiqoon) means. Most people understand from the English translations it to mean as the one who is foremost in doing good deeds but in reality there’s more to it if one goes through the Tafasir (sing. Tafsir) of the ‘ulamaa of the past.

As soon as we think about the Sabiqoon, we are reminded of Ameer-ul-Mu’mineen Abu Bakr AlSiddiq رضي الله عنه‘s life and how he was always the leader in doing good deeds amongst the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم. Thus I decided to do some in depth study of the word Sabiq by looking through 6-8 different Tafasir.

Allah سبحانه وتعالى says,

وَالسَّابِقُونَ السَّابِقُونَ

And those foremost will be foremost (in Paradise).”[1]

There is a difference of opinion on the meaning of this ayah.

Abu Sawda رحمه الله said, “They are the first ones who go to the Masjid, and they hurry in doing acts in the path of Allah سبحانه وتعالى.” [2]

Muhammad bin Ka`b AlQuradhi (student of Ubayy bin Ka’b رضي الله عنه in Makkah) and Abu Hazrah Ya`qub bin Mujahid رحمهما اللهsaid regarding this ayah that in this ayah Allah سبحانه وتعالى was speaking about the Prophets عليهم سلام.

Whilst As-Suddi رحمه اللهsaid that they are the residents of the utmost highs (Ahl Al-`Illiyyin, in Paradise). The meaning of foremost is that they were foremost in performing the acts of righteousness just as Allah سبحانه وتعالى commanded them,

وَسَارِعُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا السَّمَـوَتُ وَالاٌّرْضُ

“And march forth in the way to forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as the heavens and the earth.” [3]

and,

سَابِقُواْ إِلَى مَغْفِرَةٍ مِّن رَّبِّكُمْ وَجَنَّةٍ عَرْضُهَا كَعَرْضِ السَّمَآءِ وَالاٌّرْضِ

“Race with one another in hastening towards forgiveness from your Lord, and Paradise the width whereof is as the width of the heaven and the earth.” [4]

Therefore, those who rush to obey Allah in this life and are foremost in performing acts of righteousness will be among the foremost believers honored in the Hereafter. [5]

AlHasan AlBasri and Qatadah رحمهما الله have said, “They are the ones who were the first in Iman from amongst every ummah.”

Muhammad ibn Sirin رحمه الله said, “They are the ones who prayed towards the Qiblatayn (both Qiblahs i.e. Masjid AlAqsa and Ka’bah) his proof being the saying of Allah سبحانه وتعالى,

وَالسَّابِقُونَ الْأَوَّلُونَ مِنْ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَار…

“And the first to embrace Islam of the Muhajirun and the Ansar”[6]

Mujahid bin Jabr رحمه الله and others have said, “They are the foremost in going for Jihad and first of the people of those who go to the Salah.”

‘Ali رضي الله عنه has said, “They are the foremost to the five prayers.”

Sa’id bin Jubayr رحمه الله (student of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنه in Madinah) commented on this ayah, “(Hurrying) towards repentance and deeds of righteousness. Allah سبحانه وتعالى says,

وَسَارِعُوا إِلَى مَغْفِرَة مِنْ رَبّكُمْ

“And march forth in the way (which leads to) forgiveness from your Lord, and for Paradise as wide as are the heavens and the earth, prepared for Al-Muttaqun” [7]

Then quoted the ayah,

أُولَئِكَ يُسَارِعُونَ فِي الْخَيْرَات وَهُمْ لَهَا سَابِقُونَ

“It is these who race for the good deeds, and they are foremost in them” [8]

Tarjuman Al Qur`an, ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهماsaid, ” They are the four from them was the first amongst the ummah of Musa عليه سلام who was Hizqeel from the family of Pharaoh. The first amongst the ummah of ‘Isa عليه سلام who was Habeeb AlNajjar (the carpenter), the man from Antioch and the two foremost amongst the ummah of Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم, Abu Bakr and ‘Umar رضي الله عنهما. “Narrated AlMawardi رحمه الله

Shumayt bin ‘Ajlaan رحمه الله said, “People are of three types, as for the person who gets up to do good in a youthful age, until Allah سبحانه وتعالى takes him away from this world then he is the one who precede others (Sabiq)…”

It was also said, “They are the ones who precede others in everything of righteousness. [9]

Ibn Kaysaan رحمه الله said, “They are foremost to whatever Allah سبحانه و تعالى has called to.”

Ka’b رحمه الله said, “They are the people of Qur`an who will be crowned on the Day of Resurrection.” [10]

In conclusion, even though there are different meanings given by different ‘ulamaa’ of the Salaf we should not be confused as to which is the right meaning rather we should try to implement all of the meanings on ourselves which are possible. Because there are certain meanings such as those people of Salaf who said that in the afore mentioned ayah, Allah سبحانه وتعالى was talking about Prophets عليهم سلام or the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم and indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.
References:

[1] Qur’an AlKareem {56:10}

[2]Tafsir AlTabari

[3] Qur`an AlKareem {3:133}

[4] Qur`an AlKareem {57:21}

[5]Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[6] Qur`an AlKareem {9:100}

[7] Qur`an AlKareem {3:133}

[8] Qur`an AlKareem {23:61}

[9]Tafsir AlQurtubi

[10]Tafsir AlBaghawi

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