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Posts Tagged ‘Tafsir Ibn Al Uthaymeen’

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 9:

يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

“They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!”


يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا

The hypocrite’s attempted deception (khidaa‘) of his Lord and of the believers is the verbal attestation of the truth which he declares with his tongue contrary to the doubt and denial in his heart. By it he seeks to ward off Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s judgement of death or captivity which would otherwise necessarily fall on whoever makes a denial as he does. [52]

Their deception; what is apparent from them is Iman which is different from the hidden which is kufr making their blood and wealth halal (rather than being haram for another Muslim if the person is a Muslim). They think that they can be safe (from Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s punishment) and can deceive (Allah سبحانه وتعالى and Muslims) [53]


وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ

Allah سبحانه وتعالى stated that the hypocrites only deceive themselves by this behaviour, although they are unaware of this fact. Allah سبحانه وتعالى also said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ يُخَـدِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ

“Verily, the hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them[54]

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim رحمه الله narrated that Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله commented on Allah سبحانه وتعالى‘s statement previously mentioned by saying, “The hypocrites pronounce, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah’ seeking to ensure the sanctity of their blood and money, all the while concealing disbelief. ”

Sa‘id bin Jubayr رحمه الله said that Qatadah رحمه اللهsaid regarding ayaatayn 8 &9, “This is the description of a hypocrite. He is devious; he says the truth with his tongue and defies it with his heart and deeds. He wakes up in a condition other than the one he goes to sleep in, and goes to sleep in a different condition than the one he wakes up in. He changes his mind just like a ship that moves about whenever a wind blows.” [55]


وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

‘AbduLlah bin Wahb رحمه الله said, “I asked ‘Abdur Rahman bin Zayd about this verse… He said, ‘They were unaware that they were harming themselves by concealing their unbelief and hypocrisy.’ Then he recited His words, ‘Upon the day when Allah shall awaken the all together.’ Ad said, ‘They are hypocrites’ – up to ‘and think they are on something56] ‘belief would have been useful for them before you.’” [57]

Benefits of this ayah:

From amongst the benefits of this ayah are:

1) That we know the hypocrites are people of plotting

2) That we should protect ourselves from the hypocrites. Then someone might ask, “How do recognise a hypocrite so we can save ourselves from him?” The answer is, “We will know from observing his sayings and actions; are they identical or contradictory? If we learn that this man is playing with us and outwardly loves Islam and loves the religion but when he is alone, we learn that for certainty he is fighting the religion then we know he is a hypocrite then it is an obligation upon us to save ourselves from him.

3) Evil plots do not result in anyone getting into trouble expect oneself

4) Evil actions lead to the blindness of ones understanding. [58]

Important point to note: This verse is one of the clearest proofs of Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s rebuttal of those who claim that Allah سبحانه وتعالى only chastises one who obstinately refuses to believe in Him after he comes to know of His Oneness and affirming the genuineness of His Books and Messengers عليهم السلام, in doing which he stubbornly opposes his Lord. [59]

Personal Comments:

1) We learn from this ayah another characteristic of a hypocrite which is that he has a deceptive nature. This is also clearly mentioned in the hadith of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم “Whoever has (the following) four characters will be a hypocrite, and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy until he gives it up. These are: Whenever he talks, he tells a lie; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it; whenever he makes a covenant he proves treacherous…” [60] Breaking promises and covenants is also a form of deception

2) Hypocrites also possess the trait of fearing people not Allah سبحانه و تعالى when committing sins in private not public. This, in fact, is type of riyaa’ which is show off and thus a minor shirk as one prevents himself from sins in public so people might think good of him.

May Allah سبحانه و تعالى protect us from being hypocrites. Ameen And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

References:

[52] Tafsir AlTabari

[53] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[54] Qur`an AlKareem {4:142}

[55] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[56] Qur`an AlKareem {58:18}

[57] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[58] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[59] Tafsir AlTabari

[59] Sahih AlBukhari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 8:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not.”

On the authority of Ibn Zuray‘رحمه الله,Mujahid رحمه الله said, “Four verses were revealed in Surat AlBaqarah about the believers, two attributing the disbelievers, and thirteen for the hypocrites.” [44]

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ

This is for division i.e. some of the people (but not all). And Allah سبحانه وتعالى has not referred them with the character of Iman nor with kufr because they are as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has characterised in Surat AlNisaa’,

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ

“(They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those…” [45][46]

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “This verse refers to the hypocrites from the tribes of Al Aws and Al Khazraj, and those who agreed with them.”

Meaning of Nifaaq:

Nifaaq means to show conformity – or agreement – and to conceal evil. Nifaaq has several types: Nifaaq in the creed that causes its people to reside in Hell for eternity, and Nifaaq in deed, which is one of the major sins. Thus Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله said of the hypocrite that, “His actual deeds are different from what he publicizes, what he conceals is different from what he utters, his entrance and presence are not the same as his exit and absence.” [47] [48]

Benefits of the Verse:

From the benefits of this verse are:

1) The eloquence of the Qur`an: Indeed the eloquence of the Qur`an is in categorisation for Allah سبحانه و تعالى started this Surah with the description of pure believers, then the disbelievers and then of the hypocrites

2) That verily the saying of the tongue will not benefit man as the saying of Allah سبحانه وتعالى ,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not.”

3) That the hypocrites are not believers (Mu’mineen). But are the ones who submit to Allah سبحانه وتعالى (Muslimeen)? If what is meant by Islam as an outward submitting then they are Muslims. But is it is meant by the Islam of the heart, then they are not Muslims

4) That Iman must be in conformity with the heart and the tongue. And the proof for this is that these (hypocrites) say, “We Believe!” with their tongues and don’t believe with their hearts. [49]

Personal Comments:

We can also learn many other aspects from this verse:

1) That the hypocrites are those who lie when they speak and this is supported by the hadith of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم when he said, “Four traits whoever possesses them is a hypocrite and whoever possesses some of them has an element of hypocrisy until he leaves it: the one who when he speaks, he lies…” [50] Imam AlHasan AlBasri رحمه الله has said, “Nifaaq is the difference between the inner and the appearance, between statement and action, between entering and leaving and it used to be said that the foundation of Nifaaq upon which it is built is lying.” It is because when one lies, he does something else in private and when asked about it in public; he says something that contradicts his action and this in reality the definition of hypocrisy given by RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم, AlHasan AlBasri and Ibn Jurayj رحمهما الله

2) Hypocrites are those are deceptive as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “…He who deceives is not from us.” [51] “…not from us.” Means not following the conduct of Muslims or not following their way.

3) This ayah talks about the people who commit Nifaaq in ‘Aqeedah and thus are not Muslims.

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.


References:

[44] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[45] Qur`an AlKareem {4:143}

[46] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[47] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[48] Tafsir AlTabari

[49] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[50] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[51] Sahihayn

[52] Sahih Muslim

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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