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Posts Tagged ‘Tafsir Ibn Kathir’

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Allah سبحانه و تعالى says in Surat Al A’raaf,


وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

“And surely, We have created many of the jinns and mankind for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, they have eyes wherewith they see not, and they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones.”[1]

Out of His fairness, Allah سبحانه و تعالى describes to us the heedless people so we can take guidance and leave the wrong path we are upon currently towards Siraat Al Mustaqeem.

Al Hasan, Al Suddi, Mujahid & ‘Abdullah bin al-‘Abbas رضي الله عنهم said regarding the word ذَرَأْنَا that it means “We Created.”[2] We is used for Allah سبحانه و تعالى as in a royal ‘We’ not a plural ‘We’


وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ

Al Haafidh Ibn Kathir رحمه الله wrote in his tafsir explaining this phrase, “We made a share in the Fire.”


كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنْسِ

He then continues, “We prepared them for it by their performance of the deeds of its people. When Allah سبحانه و تعالى intended to create the creation, He knew what their work will be before they existed. He wrote all this in a Book, kept with Him, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth. As Imam Muslim رحمه الله has recorded a hadith Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying, “Verily, Allah decided the destination and due measurement of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth, and His Throne was over the water.” [3]


لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا

Then Allah سبحانه و تعالى describes the people from amongst the Jinn and Humans he has created for Jahannam starting off by mention their condition of their hearts as Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said as a part of a longer hadith,

“…Beware, in the body there is a flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt, and behold, it is the heart.”[4]

Al Haafidh Ibn Hajr Al ‘Asqalaani رحمه الله said, “The heart has been singled out for this because it is the leader of the body, and through the purification of the leader the subjects become purified, and with his corruption, they become corrupted.”[5]

As for the Tafsir of the ayah, Imam Al Tabari رحمه الله says, “These people are those who are created for Jahannam from His creation; who do not ponder with it (i.e. the heart) the ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى nor contemplate the proofs of His Oneness nor do they think over the arguments proving His Messengers عليهم صلاة و السلام. However, they do know the Oneness of their Lord سبحانه و تعالى and they are acquainted with the reality of Prophet Hood of the Prophets عليهم صلاة و السلام. Thus, our Lord سبحانه و تعالى has described them with not understanding with it (i.e. heart) because of their turning away from the Truth and forsaking of their pondering over truthfulness of success and extent of thanklessness.”[6]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله said, “Because they don’t benefit from it (what is revealed) and they do not contemplate upon the rewards nor fear the punishments.”[7]

Mujahid bin Jabr رحمه الله said, “They don’t understand with it (i.e. heart) the affairs of hereafter.”[8]

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله writes, “They don’t realise good and guidance.”[9]

This phrase of the ayah talks about those people who have no interest in gaining the knowledge of the Deen because when they are told to remember Allah سبحانه و تعالى and learn about His Oneness and study the Messengers عليهم صلاة و السلام, they refuse to do so and prefer to remain ignorant. Thus, when they are reminded of the signs pointing to the Oneness of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they refuse to know them even though they believe in them. And since they have no knowledge, they lack the fear of Jahannam and love of Jannah.

Then Allah سبحانه و تعالى continues,


وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا

It is noted from the Tafasir that this section of the ayah has similar meaning to the previous one but in addition the scholars write that they (the people mentioned in this ayah) do not see the Truth. [10]


وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا

Imams Al Tabari , Al Baghawi & Al Shawkani رحمهم الله say regarding this verse, “The Book of Allah, rather than thinking and contemplating about them, they turn away from them.” [11]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله writes regarding the verse, “Admonish.”

Even though these people hear the ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they do not contemplate and think over it rather they turn away from them.


أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

Mujahid رحمه الله said regarding this, “(After mentioning the other characteristics) then he made their mention like the cattle then made them even worse than cattle and then finally mentioned that they are the heedless ones.”[12]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله says, “Because they are not guided towards the rewards thus they are like cattle whose intention is to just eat and drink. But they (the people) are more misguided since the cattle can at least understand its benefit and harm and obeys its owner but they are even opposite of that. They forsake contemplation (of ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى) and turn away from Paradise and Hell.”[13]

The benefit of the people lie in learning the ‘Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama‘ah and fundamentals of Islam, but there are some heedless people who do not understand this importance of this and thus are more misguided that cattle who at least comprehend their benefit and loss whereas these people do not. Allah سبحانه و تعالى has named the Qur’an as Al Furqan which means a criterion that distinguishes between the Truth and falsehood. If this criterion is not recited and studied, then it is a great possibility one would fall into actions that are forbidden in the Shari‘ah of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم as one of the poets said,


عَرَفْتُ شَرْ لَا لِشَرْ **** لَكِنْ تُلَا فِيْهِ

وَ مَنْ لَا يَعْرِفُ شَرْ**** جَدِيْر أَنْ يَقَعَ فِيْهِ

“I learned evil not to indulge in it,
rather to abstain from it,
and whoever does not know what evil is,
it is likely that he will fall into it.”

May Allah سبحانه و تعالى make us amongst those who benefit greatly from this ayah. Ameen

And Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Surat Al A’raaf, ayah 179

[2] Tafsir Al Tabari

[3] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[4] Sahih Al Bukhari & Sahih Muslim

[5] Diseases of the Hearts and its Cure’ compiler’s foreword

[6] Tafsir Al Tabari

[7] Tafsir Al Qurtubi

[8] Fath Al Qadeer

[9] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[10] Tafasir Al Tabari, Al Qurtubi, Al Fayruzabadi, Fath Al Qadeer

[11] Tafasir Al Tabari, Tafsir Al Baghawi & Fath Al Qadeer [the last 2 Imams write , “The Book of Allah,” or its like not the rest]

[12] Tafsir Al Tabari

[13] Tafsir Al Qurtubi

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Want to be Successful?

بسم الله الرحمان الحيم

الحمد الله

All Praise is due to Allah سبحانه و تعالى. May Peace and Blessings be upon Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, his progeny, his companions رضي الله عنهم.

It would unreasonable that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will tell us about Jannah and not tell us how to get to it. And it would be impossible that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will inform us about Jahannam and not tell us how to escape it. Thus, He سبحانه و تعالى has said in a beautiful verse,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and do Ribaat and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.”

‘A’ishah رضي الله عنها says, “Whenever an ayah starts with ‘O’ you who believe’ then bring forth your ear to listen to it carefully.”

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا

The interpreters of the Qur`an have differed on the meaning of this ayah. Some have said “That’s means: Endure with your religion, be more patient with the disbelievers and do Ribaat against them.”

Qatadah رحمه الله says, “It is the forbearance on the obedience of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, being patient with the people of misguidance and guard the borderlines in the Path of Allah سبحانه و تعالى.”

Muhammad bin Ka‘b AlQuradhi رحمه الله has said about this ayah, “Endure with your religion, be patient with the Promise that you have been Promised with and do Ribaat against your enemies until they leave their religion to follow yours.”

Others have said something similar but with the only difference that it means, “Carry on with Jihaad.”[1]

Al Hasan Al Basri رحمه الله said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam. They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity, until they die as Muslims. They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.” Similar explanation given by several other scholars among the Salaf.[2]

Meaning of being Patient with the Obedience and Religion of Allah سبحانه و تعالى:

Al Haafidh Ibn Al Qayyim رحمه الله says, “Patience in worshipping Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and carrying out His instructions means that you perform the prescribed acts of worship regularly and do so sincerely and with knowledge. Worship that is not performed regularly is of no value. Even if worship is performed regularly, there are two dangers. Firstly, we risk losing our sincerity, if the motive for performing prayers is not to please Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and draw closer to Him. So to protect our worship we must make sure that we are sincere. Secondly, we must be sure never to deviate from the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, so we have to ensure that our worship is done according to the Sunnah.”[3]

As have read in the quote above, patience in worship is make sure that one’s intention to do the act is for the sake of Allah سبحانه و تعالى or not and doing the action according to the Sunnah of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم. This means we should not get frustrated with checking our intentions frequently in other words, being happy with Qadhaa’ wal Qadr. This includes the reaction of people and events that take place in one’s life as we learn from the following ayah,

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O My son! Aqim­is­Salât (perform As­Salât), Enjoin (people) for Al­Ma’rûf (Islâmic Monotheism and All that is good), and forbid (people) from Al­Munkar (i.e. disbelief In the Oneness of Allâh, polytheism of All kinds and All that is evil and bad), and bear with patience whatever befall you. Verily! These are some of the important Commandments ordered by Allâh with no exemption.”[4]

Meaning of Ribaat:

As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverance. It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn `Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رضي الله عنهم stated. [5]

Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade? Performing perfect ablution in unfavourable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat.” [6]

They also say that the Murabatah in the above Ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory. There are several ahadith that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards.[7] Sahl bin Sa‘d As-Sa‘idi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“A Day of Ribaat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it”[8]

Salman Al-Farisi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Ribaat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyaam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribaat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.”[9]

‘AbduLlah Ibn `Abbas رضي الله عنهما said that he heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying,

“Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.”[10]

And finally, Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him. Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction; if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.”[11]

وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

This means have Taqwa of Allah سبحانه و تعالى O’ believers! And beware of opposing His Commands or exceeding His limits  Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رحمه الله said regarding this verse, “Fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.” [12]

This is one of the ways to be successful Allah سبحانه و تعالى has talked about in Qur`an and indeed being successful does not mean achieving an engineering degree nor getting married rather it means being rewarded with Jannah and indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best

References

1 Tafsir Al Tabari

2 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

3 ‘Uddaat Al Saabireen wa Dhaakiraat Al Shakireen

4 Surat Luqman, 31:17

5 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

6 Ibn Abi Hatim, Sahih Muslim and Sunan An-Nasa’i

7Tafsir Ibn Kathir

8 Sahih Al Bukhari

9 Sahih Muslim

10 Sunan Al Tirmidhi

11 Sahih Al Bukhari

12 Tafsir Al Tabari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 9:

يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

“They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!”


يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا

The hypocrite’s attempted deception (khidaa‘) of his Lord and of the believers is the verbal attestation of the truth which he declares with his tongue contrary to the doubt and denial in his heart. By it he seeks to ward off Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s judgement of death or captivity which would otherwise necessarily fall on whoever makes a denial as he does. [52]

Their deception; what is apparent from them is Iman which is different from the hidden which is kufr making their blood and wealth halal (rather than being haram for another Muslim if the person is a Muslim). They think that they can be safe (from Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s punishment) and can deceive (Allah سبحانه وتعالى and Muslims) [53]


وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ

Allah سبحانه وتعالى stated that the hypocrites only deceive themselves by this behaviour, although they are unaware of this fact. Allah سبحانه وتعالى also said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ يُخَـدِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ

“Verily, the hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them[54]

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim رحمه الله narrated that Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله commented on Allah سبحانه وتعالى‘s statement previously mentioned by saying, “The hypocrites pronounce, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah’ seeking to ensure the sanctity of their blood and money, all the while concealing disbelief. ”

Sa‘id bin Jubayr رحمه الله said that Qatadah رحمه اللهsaid regarding ayaatayn 8 &9, “This is the description of a hypocrite. He is devious; he says the truth with his tongue and defies it with his heart and deeds. He wakes up in a condition other than the one he goes to sleep in, and goes to sleep in a different condition than the one he wakes up in. He changes his mind just like a ship that moves about whenever a wind blows.” [55]


وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

‘AbduLlah bin Wahb رحمه الله said, “I asked ‘Abdur Rahman bin Zayd about this verse… He said, ‘They were unaware that they were harming themselves by concealing their unbelief and hypocrisy.’ Then he recited His words, ‘Upon the day when Allah shall awaken the all together.’ Ad said, ‘They are hypocrites’ – up to ‘and think they are on something56] ‘belief would have been useful for them before you.’” [57]

Benefits of this ayah:

From amongst the benefits of this ayah are:

1) That we know the hypocrites are people of plotting

2) That we should protect ourselves from the hypocrites. Then someone might ask, “How do recognise a hypocrite so we can save ourselves from him?” The answer is, “We will know from observing his sayings and actions; are they identical or contradictory? If we learn that this man is playing with us and outwardly loves Islam and loves the religion but when he is alone, we learn that for certainty he is fighting the religion then we know he is a hypocrite then it is an obligation upon us to save ourselves from him.

3) Evil plots do not result in anyone getting into trouble expect oneself

4) Evil actions lead to the blindness of ones understanding. [58]

Important point to note: This verse is one of the clearest proofs of Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s rebuttal of those who claim that Allah سبحانه وتعالى only chastises one who obstinately refuses to believe in Him after he comes to know of His Oneness and affirming the genuineness of His Books and Messengers عليهم السلام, in doing which he stubbornly opposes his Lord. [59]

Personal Comments:

1) We learn from this ayah another characteristic of a hypocrite which is that he has a deceptive nature. This is also clearly mentioned in the hadith of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم “Whoever has (the following) four characters will be a hypocrite, and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy until he gives it up. These are: Whenever he talks, he tells a lie; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it; whenever he makes a covenant he proves treacherous…” [60] Breaking promises and covenants is also a form of deception

2) Hypocrites also possess the trait of fearing people not Allah سبحانه و تعالى when committing sins in private not public. This, in fact, is type of riyaa’ which is show off and thus a minor shirk as one prevents himself from sins in public so people might think good of him.

May Allah سبحانه و تعالى protect us from being hypocrites. Ameen And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

References:

[52] Tafsir AlTabari

[53] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[54] Qur`an AlKareem {4:142}

[55] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[56] Qur`an AlKareem {58:18}

[57] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[58] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[59] Tafsir AlTabari

[59] Sahih AlBukhari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 8:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not.”

On the authority of Ibn Zuray‘رحمه الله,Mujahid رحمه الله said, “Four verses were revealed in Surat AlBaqarah about the believers, two attributing the disbelievers, and thirteen for the hypocrites.” [44]

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ

This is for division i.e. some of the people (but not all). And Allah سبحانه وتعالى has not referred them with the character of Iman nor with kufr because they are as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has characterised in Surat AlNisaa’,

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ

“(They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those…” [45][46]

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “This verse refers to the hypocrites from the tribes of Al Aws and Al Khazraj, and those who agreed with them.”

Meaning of Nifaaq:

Nifaaq means to show conformity – or agreement – and to conceal evil. Nifaaq has several types: Nifaaq in the creed that causes its people to reside in Hell for eternity, and Nifaaq in deed, which is one of the major sins. Thus Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله said of the hypocrite that, “His actual deeds are different from what he publicizes, what he conceals is different from what he utters, his entrance and presence are not the same as his exit and absence.” [47] [48]

Benefits of the Verse:

From the benefits of this verse are:

1) The eloquence of the Qur`an: Indeed the eloquence of the Qur`an is in categorisation for Allah سبحانه و تعالى started this Surah with the description of pure believers, then the disbelievers and then of the hypocrites

2) That verily the saying of the tongue will not benefit man as the saying of Allah سبحانه وتعالى ,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not.”

3) That the hypocrites are not believers (Mu’mineen). But are the ones who submit to Allah سبحانه وتعالى (Muslimeen)? If what is meant by Islam as an outward submitting then they are Muslims. But is it is meant by the Islam of the heart, then they are not Muslims

4) That Iman must be in conformity with the heart and the tongue. And the proof for this is that these (hypocrites) say, “We Believe!” with their tongues and don’t believe with their hearts. [49]

Personal Comments:

We can also learn many other aspects from this verse:

1) That the hypocrites are those who lie when they speak and this is supported by the hadith of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم when he said, “Four traits whoever possesses them is a hypocrite and whoever possesses some of them has an element of hypocrisy until he leaves it: the one who when he speaks, he lies…” [50] Imam AlHasan AlBasri رحمه الله has said, “Nifaaq is the difference between the inner and the appearance, between statement and action, between entering and leaving and it used to be said that the foundation of Nifaaq upon which it is built is lying.” It is because when one lies, he does something else in private and when asked about it in public; he says something that contradicts his action and this in reality the definition of hypocrisy given by RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم, AlHasan AlBasri and Ibn Jurayj رحمهما الله

2) Hypocrites are those are deceptive as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “…He who deceives is not from us.” [51] “…not from us.” Means not following the conduct of Muslims or not following their way.

3) This ayah talks about the people who commit Nifaaq in ‘Aqeedah and thus are not Muslims.

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.


References:

[44] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[45] Qur`an AlKareem {4:143}

[46] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[47] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[48] Tafsir AlTabari

[49] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[50] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[51] Sahihayn

[52] Sahih Muslim

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Continuing from the last time insha’Allah

Ayah 6:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

“Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.”

There are three opinions to whom this ayah refers to:

1) Jews of Madinah who knew the truth and lied against Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما] [36]

2) Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم wished that all people would believe but Allah سبحانه وتعالى had informed him that only for those whom He willed guidance would believe.

3) About the people Allah سبحانه وتعالى mentions,

“Have you not seen those who have changed the Blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction? Hell, in which they will burn, – and what an evil place to settle in!”

They were the one killed in Battle of Badr.

In conclusion, Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله supported the opinions 1 & 2 and gave the reason,

“Because this follows Allah سبحانه و تعالى’s speaking about the believers amongst the people of Scripture thus it’s more appropriate that there should follow description about kuffar from them.” [37]


Ayah 7:

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

“Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah’s Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.”

The original meaning of khatama is to impress (strike) [38]

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ

As usual there also two opinions regarding this:

1) Al A’mash رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid showed us by using his hand and said, ‘Our Companions considered the heart like this’ i.e.; the palm of the hand. ‘When the servant commits a sin, a part of it is closed up’ and he demonstrated by curling up his little finger like this – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger like this, until he had curled up all his fingers. He said, ‘Then it is impressed with a seal.’ ‘They also considered this to be the “stain”’

Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid said, ‘I was informed that sins surround the heart on various sided until they merge round about it. This merging round it is the impress, and the impress is the seal.

Also Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “’Abd Allah bin Kathir said he heard Mujahid say, ‘The “stain” is less serious that the “seal”, the “seal” is less serious than the “locks”, the “locks” (refer to 47:24) are more severe than of all of these.”

2) Some of them said that the meaning of His words “Allah has set a seal on their hearts” is that it is a message from Allah about their arrogance, and their aversion to listening to the truth they were summoned to, as when one says that a person is deaf to what someone says when he refuses to listen to it and arrogantly makes up his mind not to understand it.

Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله’s opinion as a conclusion,

“The truth in this matter, according to me, is what accords with the truth of the report from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم:

‘When the believer commits a sin there is a black spot in his heart. If he repents, renounces it, and asks forgiveness, this polishes his heart. But if he compounds his sin, the point grows bigger till it lock his heart, and this is the stain (raan)which Allah سبحانه و تعالى speaks of. “Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering of sins and evil deeds) which they used to earn.” [39] [40]

Al-Qurtubi رحمه اللهsaid, “The Ummah has agreed that Allah has described Himself with sealing and closing the hearts of the disbelievers, as a punishment for their disbelief” [41]

وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ

In Arabic, ghishawah means ‘covering’ for the stamp is placed on the heart and the hearing while the ghishawah, the covering, is appropriately placed on the eyes. [42]

وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Theirs is a mighty chastisement for their opposition to you [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم]. This concerns the Jewish Rabbis and concerns the truth which came to you from your Lord which they denied after they had knowledge.” [43]

References:

[36] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[37] Tafsir AlTabari

[38] Tafsir AlTabari

[39] Qur`an AlKareem {83:14}

[40] Tafsir AlTabari

[41] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[42] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[43] Tafsir AlTabari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته


Ayah 4:

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ


And who believe in which has been sent down (to you) and in which were sent down before you and they believe with certainty in the Hereafter.”

وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ وَمَا أُنزِلَ مِن قَبْلِكَ:


There are two opinions regarding who this phrase is referred to:

  1. They are the believers from people of Scripture [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of companions رضي الله عنهم ] [25]
  2. They believe in what Allah (SWT) sent you (Muhammad (SAWS)) with and in previous Messengers and they do not distinguish between them, nor do they reject what they brought from their Lord. [opinion of Ibn Kathir رحمه الله] [26]

The stronger and most correct opinion if of the Sahabah
رضي الله عنهم


أُنزِلَ إِلَيْكَ is the Qur`an [27]

وَبِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ:

There are two reasons why the hereafter is called the آخِرَةِ:

  1. Because it is preceded by this dunya
  2. Because of its deferment (ta’akhkhur) after creation just as this world is called the dunya because of its proximity (dunoow) to the creation. [28]

الْآخِرَةِ means:

  1. Resurrection
  2. Paradise
  3. Hell
  4. Reckoning
  5. Weighing of good and bad deeds [29]

يُوقِنُونَ means belief without any doubt [30]

Ayah 5:

أُولَـٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ


“They are those on (true) guidance from their Lord, and they are the successful.”


There are two opinions regarding who this ayah is referred to:

  1. They are the believers amongst the ‘Arabs. [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم]
  2. They are the people of Scripture

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله presented his opinion as a conclusion,

“In our view, the best interpretation is that reported from ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and that “They are those…”refers to both groups.” [31]

أُولَـٰئِكَ refers to those who believe in the Unseen, establish prayer, spend from what Allah (SWT) provided them, prepare for the necessary requirements for the hereafter by performing good deeds and avoid the prohibitions. [32]

عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Who proceed according to a lightfrom their Lord and go straight forward according to what came to them.”[33]

Shaykh Muhammad bin Saalih Al’Uthaymeen رحمه الله writes in his Tafsir,

“Their treading upon it like they are hurrying up on a clear and unambiguous path, they don’t have any doubt. You would see them accepting righteous deeds like a lamp in front find them, for example, looking in the secrets of the Shari’ah of Allah سبحانه تعالى and its wisdom knowing from it which is hidden from most people. You would also find them experiencing AlQadhaa’ wa AlQadr as if they are witnessing the command in their favour even though they are being afflicted with something that is harming them or being of evil nature. They see that in their favour because Allah سبحانه وتعالى has indeed illuminated for them the path so they are guidance from their Lord. Guidance is like ride saving them from destruction or a ship salvaging them from drowning.”

مِّن رَّبِّهِمْ:


Their Creator, Planner of their affairs [34]

وَأُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ:


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “It means those who attain what they seek and are delivered from the evil they flee.” [35]


And Allah
سبحانه وتعالى knows best.


References:


[25] Tafsir AlTabari

[26] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[27] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[28] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[29] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[30] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[31] Tafsir AlTabari

[32] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[33] Tafsir AlTabari

[34] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[35] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 3:

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

“Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them”

الَّذِينَ is used for the Muttaqeen

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ :

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “They attest to its truth.”

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud رضي الله عنه said, “Belief is attesting to the truth.”

Al Rabi’ رحمه الله said, “Those who fear.”

AlZuhri رحمه الله said, “Belief is action.” [17]

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ

There are three opinions regarding to whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى is referring in this ayah:

These are ‘Arabs (former mushrikeen) who believed in the Unseen. [Opinion of ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah ibn ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah]

The ayaat 2:2-5 are talking about Ahl AlKitaab

This ayah and the other 3 ayaat are talking about Arabs and non-‘Arabs, People of Scripture and others.

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله goes onto mention his the opinion he thinks is to be the most correct one by saying,

“In my view, the opinion most likely to be correct, and the most suitable for the interpretation of the Book, is the first, that those whom Allah سبحانه و تعالى described as believing in the Unseen… are not those whom He described as believing in what was sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم and what was sent down to Messengers before him. They justified their opinion by using the ayah that follows these two verses, “And who believe in which has been sent down to you and in which were sent down before you.” They said that the Arabs had no scripture whose truth they professed, which they acknowledged, and according to which they acted, before the Book which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم. “[18]

أَلْغَيْب:

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said,” What is concealed from the servants of the affair of Jannah and Jahannam, and what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned in the Qur`an.”

Zirr رحمه الله said, “The Unseen is the Qur`an”

AlRabi’ bin Anas رحمه الله said, “They believe in Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, and the Last Day, His Jannah and Jahannam, and in the Meeting with Him. They believe in the life after death. All of this is Unseen.”

وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “The performance of the Salah is all the ruku’ (bowing), sujud (prostrating), tilaawah (recitation), khushu’ (humility and submission) and iqbaal (attentiveness) to it.” [19]

AlQurtubi رحمه الله said, “Praying with its arkaan (pillars), sunan, and on its prescribed time.” [20]

Establishing means not just praying alone rather setting up the environment of Salah and praying in congregation.

رَزَقْنَاهُمْ

This means spending neither in extravagance nor being a miser but in between as Allah سبحانه و تعالى has said,



وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ قَوَامًا

“And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” [21]

It should be spent on:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

“They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and AlMasakin and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.” [22] [23] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ:

There are two opinions regarding the meaning of what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned,”…spend out…

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said,” They give zakah, thereby seeking the reward of the Hereafter.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said, “It is a man’s expenditure on his family. This was what it meant before the obligations of zakah were revealed.”‘

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله concludes by saying,

“The best interpretation of the verse, the most appropriate to the description of these people, is that they disbursed all that they had to from their possessions, whether it was zakah or necessary expenditure for any relatives, dependants or others for whom they were obliged to lay out expenditure for drawing near (to Allah سبحانه و تعالى), for (securing) property, or whatever…”[24]

References:

[17] Tafsir AlTabari

[18] Tafsir AlTabari

[19] Tafsir AlTabari

[20] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[21]Qur`an AlKareem {25:67}

[22]Qur`an AlKareem {2:215}

[23]Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

[24] Tafsir AlTabari


And indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes and accept the effort to spread His Deen Ameen

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