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Posts Tagged ‘Tafsir Mujahid and Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an’

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 3:

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ

“Who believe in the Ghaib and perform As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them”

الَّذِينَ is used for the Muttaqeen

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ :

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “They attest to its truth.”

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud رضي الله عنه said, “Belief is attesting to the truth.”

Al Rabi’ رحمه الله said, “Those who fear.”

AlZuhri رحمه الله said, “Belief is action.” [17]

الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِالْغَيْبِ

There are three opinions regarding to whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى is referring in this ayah:

These are ‘Arabs (former mushrikeen) who believed in the Unseen. [Opinion of ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah ibn ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah]

The ayaat 2:2-5 are talking about Ahl AlKitaab

This ayah and the other 3 ayaat are talking about Arabs and non-‘Arabs, People of Scripture and others.

Then Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله goes onto mention his the opinion he thinks is to be the most correct one by saying,

“In my view, the opinion most likely to be correct, and the most suitable for the interpretation of the Book, is the first, that those whom Allah سبحانه و تعالى described as believing in the Unseen… are not those whom He described as believing in what was sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم and what was sent down to Messengers before him. They justified their opinion by using the ayah that follows these two verses, “And who believe in which has been sent down to you and in which were sent down before you.” They said that the Arabs had no scripture whose truth they professed, which they acknowledged, and according to which they acted, before the Book which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم. “[18]

أَلْغَيْب:

‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud, ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said,” What is concealed from the servants of the affair of Jannah and Jahannam, and what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned in the Qur`an.”

Zirr رحمه الله said, “The Unseen is the Qur`an”

AlRabi’ bin Anas رحمه الله said, “They believe in Allah, His Angels, His Messengers, and the Last Day, His Jannah and Jahannam, and in the Meeting with Him. They believe in the life after death. All of this is Unseen.”

وَيُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ:

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “The performance of the Salah is all the ruku’ (bowing), sujud (prostrating), tilaawah (recitation), khushu’ (humility and submission) and iqbaal (attentiveness) to it.” [19]

AlQurtubi رحمه الله said, “Praying with its arkaan (pillars), sunan, and on its prescribed time.” [20]

Establishing means not just praying alone rather setting up the environment of Salah and praying in congregation.

رَزَقْنَاهُمْ

This means spending neither in extravagance nor being a miser but in between as Allah سبحانه و تعالى has said,



وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا أَنفَقُوا لَمْ يُسْرِفُوا وَلَمْ يَقْتُرُوا وَكَانَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ قَوَامًا

“And those, who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” [21]

It should be spent on:

يَسْأَلُونَكَ مَاذَا يُنفِقُونَ ۖ قُلْ مَا أَنفَقْتُم مِّنْ خَيْرٍ فَلِلْوَالِدَيْنِ وَالْأَقْرَبِينَ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ ۗ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ بِهِ عَلِيمٌ

“They ask you (O Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم) what they should spend. Say: Whatever you spend of good must be for parents and kindred and orphans and AlMasakin and the wayfarers, and whatever you do of good deeds, truly, Allah knows it well.” [22] [23] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan

وَمِمَّا رَزَقْنَاهُمْ يُنفِقُونَ:

There are two opinions regarding the meaning of what Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mentioned,”…spend out…

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said,” They give zakah, thereby seeking the reward of the Hereafter.”

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas, ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud and a group of Sahabah رضي الله عنهم said, “It is a man’s expenditure on his family. This was what it meant before the obligations of zakah were revealed.”‘

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله concludes by saying,

“The best interpretation of the verse, the most appropriate to the description of these people, is that they disbursed all that they had to from their possessions, whether it was zakah or necessary expenditure for any relatives, dependants or others for whom they were obliged to lay out expenditure for drawing near (to Allah سبحانه و تعالى), for (securing) property, or whatever…”[24]

References:

[17] Tafsir AlTabari

[18] Tafsir AlTabari

[19] Tafsir AlTabari

[20] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[21]Qur`an AlKareem {25:67}

[22]Qur`an AlKareem {2:215}

[23]Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

[24] Tafsir AlTabari


And indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes and accept the effort to spread His Deen Ameen

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم


الحمد الله

Just in case someone thought this tafsir is going to be short, continuation of the same ayah:

There are many meanings given by the ‘ulamaa’ for the word Muttaqeen :


AlHasan AlBasri
رحمه الله said, “Who fear what they have been forbidden and fulfill what has been imposed upon them.”


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas
رضي الله عنهما said, “Those who guard themselves from Allah سبحانه وتعالى;s punishment lest they abandon the guidance they are aware of and who hope His mercy for affirming the truth.”


‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah bin Mas’ud
رضي الله عنهم said, “Those who are the believers (mu’minin).”


Qatadah
رحمه الله said, “They are those whom Allah سبحانه وتعالى has characterised and described, and then has confirmed their qualities, saying, ”Who believe in the Ghaib and establish As-Salat (Iqamat-as-Salat), and spend out of what we have provided for them.’


AlKalbi
رحمه الله said, “Those who keep away from major sins.” [15]

It was said, “They are those who love Allah سبحانه وتعالى with their heart.”


Abu Sulaiman AlDaraani
رحمه الله said, “Those who fear shirk and nifaaq.”


Ibn Mu’taz
رحمه الله said, “Abandoning sins, both minor and major, that is piety. Do as the one, who walks across thorny terrain, he is wary of that which he sees. Do no look down on any minor (sin) – indeed, mountains are made up of pebbles.” [16]



May Allah سبحانه وتعالى accept my effort to spread His Deen. May Allah سبحانه وتعالى make us amongst the Muttaqeen. Ameen

References:


[15] Tafsir AlTabari

[16] Tafsir AlQurtubi

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله


After I attended the Breach of Covenant seminar, which was Tafsir of Surat AlBaqarah Juzz’ 1, held by AlMaghrib institute, I decided to go over the notes along with other Tafasir such as Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir AlTabari, Tafsir AlQurtubi, Tafsir AlJalalayn, Tafsir Mujahid and Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an and will insha’Allah post notes from them as I continue:

Ayah 1:


الم


“Alif, Laam, Meem.”


These letters are known as Huroof Al Muqatta’aat or disjointed letters. Their meanings are known to no one save Allah
سبحانه وتعالى. They form the first (in some cases second) ayah (tayn) of 29 Suwaar (sing. Surah). 14 of the 28 Arabic letters have been used for this purpose.


There are many opinions given by the ‘ulamaa’ of the Salaf on the meaning of this ayah but the correct answer would be to say that Allah
سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

Ibn Jarir AlTabari رحمه الله mentions probably the reason why Allah سبحانه وتعالىuses Huroof Al Muqatta’aat,” And others said instead that the beginnings of the Suwaar started with these letters because the polytheists, whose attitude was to avoid listening to the Qur`an, would prick up their ears when they heard them; then, whenever they gave ear, that which was composed of the letter would be recited to them.” And indeed Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best. [1]

Ayah 2:

ذَ*ٰلِكَ الْكِتَابُ لَا رَيْبَ ۛ فِيهِ ۛ هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ


“This is the Book (the Qur’an), whereof there is no doubt, a guidance to those who are Al-Muttaqun.”


The word
ذَٰلِكَ literally means that but it is understood as ‘this.’ There three opinions on why هَذَا is not used:

1)”This is possible because whatever has just been mentioned is referred to again is like something present to the person addressed, even though it may mean something which is not present. … It is thus with <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>>, because He, exalted is His remembrance, preceded <<dhalika ‘l-kitab>> with <<alif-lam-mim>> whose freedom in its various aspects to take on the kind of meanings we described has been mentioned – and then He said to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, this, which I have mentioned and made clear to you, is the Book.” Therefore, it was proper to put dhalik in place of hadha, because it indicates a reference to the meanings included in His saying <<alif-lam-mim>>. Since reference to it has just been made, it becomes like something present to the one it was pointed out to, so He referred to it by dhalik because of its having just been mentioned…” [2]

2)”It is also possible that His words <<This is the Book>> mean the Surahs which He sent down before the Surah of the Cow in both Makkah and Madinah. It is as if He were saying to His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم: “O’ Muhammad, whatever is contained in the Surahs which I have sent down to you is the Book in which there is no doubt.” Then the exegetes interpret it, giving dhalika the meaning, “This is the Book”, since these Surahs which were sent down before the Surah of Cow form the part of this whole Book of ours which Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent down to His Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ” [3]

3)”That the Arabs sometimes referred to something that was close with the distant demonstrative, so this verse was merely employing the conventions of the language. This opinion was related by AlBukhari رحمه اللهfrom Mu’mar bin AlMuthnaa Abu Ubaydah رحمه اللهas stated by Ibn Kathir رحمه الله[4]

الْكِتَابُ is the Qur`an

لَا رَيْبَ فِيهِ means:

1)There is no doubt in the Book [5]

2)It is used as a warning, “Do not doubt the Qur`an.” [6]

رَيْبَ has 3 meanings:

1)Doubt: what ignorant people say because they don’t exactly know

2)Suspicion: if something is authentic or nor

3)Deficiency: is something is lacking some important aspect[7]

هُدًى لِّلْمُتَّقِينَ:


Guidance is an attribute of the Qur`an [8[


‘AbduLlah Ibn ‘Abbas and ‘AbduLlah Ibn Mas’ud
رضي الله عنهم have said regarding this phrase, “Light for the Muttaqeen.” [9[


From this part of the ayah we understand many aspects of guidance:


1)Guidance is an attribute of Qur`an [10]

2)It is the type of guidance that when a person is blessed with he/she then conforms with AlIslam not like those who were given irshaad (guidance given by a person) but rejected it as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has said,

وَأَمَّا ثَمُودُ فَهَدَيْنَاهُمْ فَاسْتَحَبُّوا الْعَمَىٰ عَلَى الْهُدَىٰ فَأَخَذَتْهُمْ صَاعِقَةُ الْعَذَابِ الْهُونِ بِمَا كَانُوا يَكْسِبُونَ


“And as for Thamud, We showed and made clear to them the Path of Truth (Islamic Monotheism) through Our Messenger, (i.e. showed them the way of success), but they preferred blindness to guidance, so the Sa’iqah (a destructive awful cry, torment, hit, a thunderbolt) of disgracing torment seized them, because of what they used to earn.”
[11]


We made clear to them the
True Way upon the tongue of our Prophet Saalih, upon him and our Prophet be peace and blessings, despite the fact that they did not traverse this way as proven by His سبحانه وتعالى saying, “but they preferred blindness over guidance.”

And,

إِنَّا هَدَيْنَاهُ السَّبِيلَ إِمَّا شَاكِرًا وَإِمَّا كَفُورًا


“Indeed, We guided him, whether he be grateful or ungrateful.” [12]

Meaning: We have made clear to him the Way of Good and the Way of Evil as proven by His saying, “whether he be grateful or ungrateful.”


Allah
سبحانه وتعالى is clarifying in this verse that the Qur`an is a guidance for those that fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى, and it is understood from the implications of this verse – from the opposite understanding of the verse – that this Qur’an is not a guidance for those who do not fear Allah سبحانه وتعالى. This understanding has been clarified in other verses, like His saying,

قُلْ هُوَ لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا هُدًى وَشِفَاءٌ ۖ وَالَّذِينَ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ فِي آذَانِهِمْ وَقْرٌ وَهُوَ عَلَيْهِمْ عَمًى ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ يُنَادَوْنَ مِن مَّكَانٍ بَعِيدٍ


Say: it is a guidance and healing for those who believe, as for those who do not believe there is a deafness in their ears and it is blindness for them”
[13[


And many other ayaat one can refer to (17:83), (9:124-125), (5:64-65)


There are two types of guidance:


1)General which is for everyone and is for the clarifying the Truth

2)Specific which is for the Muslims and it is acting upon the Truth [14[


References:


[1] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[2] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[3] Tafsir AlTabari [his own opinion]

[4] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an [author: Shaykh Muhammad AlAmeen AlShinqitee رحمه الله]

[5] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[6] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[7] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[8] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[9] Tafsir Ibn Kathir, Tafsir AlTabari

[10] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[11] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:17]

[12] AlQur`an AlKareem [76:3]

[13] AlQur`an AlKareem [41:44]

[14] Adhwaa’ AlBayaan fee Idhaah AlQur`an bil Qur`an

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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