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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

If one studies Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, one will find that is Suraħ is filled with laws dealing with social issues. And in this very chapter of the Qur’ān, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us how to deal with our fellow Muslims.  The saying of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى,

ياَ أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءَكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَإٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْمًا بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ

“O you who believe! If a fāsiq comes to you with a news, verify it, lest you harm people in ignorance, and afterwards you become regretful to what you have done”[1]

In this ayaħ, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us to make sure if the news or narration we hear from any fāsiq is true or authentic before accepting or basing our opinion on it.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Allāh the Exalted ordered investigating the news that sinners and the wicked bring, to make sure of its authenticity. Otherwise, if the sinner’s word is taken for granted and a decision is based on it, regardless of whether the information is true or not, the authorities will be taking the lead of the sinners. Allāh the Exalted and Most Honoured forbade taking the path of the corrupted and sinners. This is why groups of the scholars of Ḥadīth refuse to accept narrations from narrators whose reliability is unknown, for they might be from among the wicked people, in reality”[2]

Imām Al-Māwardī رحمه الله writes,

“In this ayaħ is the proof that the report of one individual is acceptable if he is trustworthy.”[3]

Imām Al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes,

“…And whosever’s fisq is grounded (and proven) then his statement is rejected completely for reporting is a trust and the indication of fisq nullifies it.”[4]

We, the Muslims, are afflicted with the disease of accepting whatever is presented to us with any verification what so ever whether is be a Muslim or a non-Muslim source.  A prime example of this would be the onslaught of the media against Islām. They are trying their best to portray Islām in the worst way possible.  Even in Muslim countries, the liberals and secularists ‘Muslims’ try to put down those who follow or even attempt to follow the Sunnaħ of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم. The non-Muslims accuse the groups of Muslims as ‘terrorists’ and when Muslims are told this, they hear and believe in instantly without trying to find the source of the news. And we learn from this ayaħ, that this is completely forbidden for a fāsiq, then what about a non-Muslim?

Not knowing the source of information and then accusing a fellow Muslim brother/sister of something can lead to slandering which is even worse than backbiting  as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said in the following ḥadīth,

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said

“Do you know what is meant by backbiting?” They said, “Allāh and His Messenger know best.” He said, “To say something about your brother which he dislikes.” One asked, “Even if what I say is true about my brother?” He replied, “If such defects you say are true about him, then you have backbitten him, and if he doesn’t have what you say, then you have committed slander against him.” [5]

And we see that Allāh سبحانه و تعالى tells us in ayaħ number 12,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ ۖ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضًا ۚ أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتًا فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ

O you who believe! Avoid much suspicion, indeed some suspicions are sins. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you like to eat the flesh of his dead brother? You would hate it (so hate backbiting) . And fear Allāh. Verily, Allāh is the One Who accepts repentance, Most Merciful”.[6]

If one looks at this verse with an eye of a grammarian, he will find that the word  اجْتَنِبُوا starts with an alif known as ‘facl amr’ which means a commanding action and that means that avoiding the much suspicion is an obligation upon us as Muslims.

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Allāh the Exalted forbids His faithful servants from being suspicious, which includes having doubts and suspicions about the conduct of one’s family, relatives and other people in general. Therefore, Muslims are to avoid suspicion without foundation. The Leader of the faithful cUmar bin Al-Khaṭṭāb said, “Never think ill of the word that comes out of your believing brother’s mouth, as long as you can find a good excuse for it.”

It is reported that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Beware of suspicion, for suspicion is the worst of false tales; do not spy on one another; do not look for other’s faults; do not be jealous of one another; do not envy one another; do not hate one another; and do not desert (shun) one another. And O Allāh’s servants! Be brothers.”[7]

cAbdullāh bin cAbbās says,

“Allāh has forbidden a believer to have bad suspicions about believers.”[8]

Al-Ḥasan رحمه الله says,

“We were in a time in which having suspicion of people was forbidden, but today; you act, remain silent and be suspicious of people however you will.”[9]

So being suspicious of your brothers and sisters doing acts, in general, against the teaching Islām is not allowed at all.  As cUmar رضي الله عنه said, we should try to give our brothers and sisters good excuses when we see them doing wrong.  For example, we see a brother talking to a ghayr maḥram. Normally the people would start having ill thoughts about that brother thinking maybe she is his girlfriend or such stuff. But, he being our brother deserves that we only think good of him. Instead having doubts about his Islāmic personality, we should give the benefit of doubt that maybe he is seeking assistance from the lady or maybe the girl is his own sister.

But, we find that some Muslims are ready to accept whatever they hear from the non-Muslim sources who accuse our brothers and sisters of ‘terrorism’ and all other such nonsense.  Moreover, we see that the accused Muslims get insulted and mocked by their fellow Muslim brothers and sisters sometimes just to please the non-Muslims and at times due to their ignorance of the teachings of Islām. In Islām we know that a person is innocent until proven guilty as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Were people to be given according to their claims, some would claim the wealth and blood of others. But the burden of proof is upon the claimant and the taking of an oath is upon the one who denies (the allegation).”[10]

But the enemies of Islām think that a Muslim is guilty even when proven innocent. The reality is, we should be careful with whatever we utter as we are going to be accountable for everything we utter on the Day of Judgement.

If we let suspicion to creep in our hearts, then this gives a solid foundation to have more illnesses in our hearts such as finding faults in one another, being envious of one another, hating others and so on.

Brotherhood:

The saying of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى,

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

“The believers are nothing else than brothers (in Islamic religion). So make reconciliation between your brothers, and fear Allāh, that you may receive mercy.”[11]

This ayaħ is a general ayaħ, which means it does not specify that there comes a situation or a time when a believer does not remain another believer’s brother. Whether or not he practises his religion properly or he goes and carries out heinous crimes, a believer is a believer’s brother.

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ

Imām aṭ-Ṭabarī رحمه الله explains in his tafsīr,

“(Brothers) in religion.”[12]

The Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim, he is not unjust with him nor does he forsake him.”[13]

Al-Ḥāfiẓ Ibn Ḥajar al-cAsqalānī رحمه الله writes in his book of sharḥ,

“‘The Muslim is the brother of the Muslim’ this is the brotherhood of Islām. For all the unity that is between the two people, takes the name of brotherhood.  ‘He is not unjust with him’ this report is of the meaning of a command for the oppression of a Muslim to another Muslim is forbidden. ‘Nor does he forsake him that he does not leave him with someone who is harmful or something that is harmful to him.”[14]

Imām al-Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes as an explanation of the verse,

“That is (brotherhood) in religion and sanctity, not in lineage. It was said regarding this, that the brotherhood in religion is stronger than the brotherhood in lineage for the brotherhood in lineage is disrupted due to the difference in religion whist the brotherhood in religion is not broken off due to the difference in lineage.” [15]

Part of injustice is having bad suspicion about your brother and it is one of the ingredients of the destruction of brotherhood as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Do not be envious of one another; do not artificially inflate prices against one another; do not hate one another; do not shun one another; and do not undercut one another in business transactions; and be as fellow-brothers and servants of Allāh. A Muslim is the brother of a Muslim. He neither oppresses him nor humiliates him nor looks down upon him. Piety is here – and he pointed to his chest three times. It is evil enough for a Muslim to hold his brother Muslim in contempt. All things of a Muslim are inviolable for another Muslim: his blood, his property and his honour.”[16]

From this ḥadīth we understand that holding a Muslim on contempt is also forbidden according to the Sharicaħ of Prophet Muḥammad صلى الله عليه و سلم. We should deal with our Muslim brothers and sisters with a clean heart and having no ill feeling having for them. This way one achieves two benefits:

1)      Having good relations with one another

2)      Possibility of committing injustice lessens as the heart is devoid of evil

فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ

This ayaħ was revealed in connection to the ayaħ preceding it but it can also be used for general purposes.

Imām al- Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr,

“Abū cUbaydaħ said, ‘Reconcile between all the brothers.’”[17]

Then he goes on and says,

“In this verse and the one before, is evidence that the ones tyrannise (like khawārij) do not cease to carry the name of Imān because Allāh, the Exalted, named them brothers of believers in spite of the fact that they are wrong doers.  Al-Ḥārith al-Acūr said that cAlī bin Abī Ṭālib was asked and he was exemplary in fighting the people of tyranny (khawārij or hypocrites) from the people of the Jamal and Ṣiffīn, ‘Are they polytheists?’ He said, ‘No, the one who do shirk have fled.’ Then it was asked, ‘Are they hypocrites?’ He said, ‘No, for the hypocrites do not remember Allāh except little.’ Then it was said to him, ‘Then what is their condition?’ He said, ‘They are our brothers who have transgressed against us.’”[18]

I have personally read statements of kufr against the brothers and sisters who are accused by the west of murdering many innocent people. The situation of cAlī رضي الله عنه was worse and still he considered them as his brothers.

In conclusion, we should try our best to refrain from all sorts of evils we could indulge in when dealing with our brothers and sisters. Not judging them, nor being suspicious of them nor speaking ill of them would solve many of the current problems this Ummaħ is facing. And indeed, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى knows best.

I ask Allāh سبحانه و تعالى to accept this work and give benefit to whoever reads it and save them from misguidance. Āmīn


[1] Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, 49:06ħ

[2] Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm

[3] An-Nakat wal-‘Uyūn & Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān (similar statement mentioned)

[4] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[5] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim, Sunan Abī Dāwūd, Sunan At-Tirmidhī

[6] Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, 49:12

[7] Mu’ṭa Imām Mālik

[8] Jāmic al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[9] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[10] Sunan al-Bayhaqi

[11] Suraħ al-Ḥujurāt, 49:10

[12] Jāmic al-Bayān Fī Tafsīr al-Qur’ān

[13] Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī and Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim  ħ

[14] Fatḥ al-Bārī Sharḥ Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī

[15] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[16] Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim

[17] Jāmic li Aḥkām al-Qur’ān

[18] Ibid

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Wajal is the trembling of the heart upon the cognition or remembrance of someone whose power or punishment one fears. [1]

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى says,

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا ذُكِرَ اللَّهُ وَجِلَتْ قُلُوبُهُمْ وَإِذَا تُلِيَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتُهُ زَادَتْهُمْ إِيمَانًا وَعَلَىٰ رَبِّهِمْ يَتَوَكَّلُونَ

“The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts and when His Verses (this Qur’an) are recited unto them, they increase their Faith; and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone).” [2]

In the Tafsīr of this ayah, Imām Al Qurṭubī رحمه الله defines وَجِلَ as, “It is the dreadfulness from the punishment of Allāh سبحانه وتعالى.” Then he goes on saying, “For this is the condition of those who are conscious of Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, those who are fearful of His Ascendancy and Punishment.” [3]

Shahr bin Ḥaushab رحمه الله narrates from Abud Dardā’ رضي الله عنه who said regarding this ayah,” Wajal in the heart is like the burning of a palm leaf. Do you find it quivering?” I said, “Indeed!” Then he said, “If you find that in the heart then call upon Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, for verily the du’a works like that.” [4]

Imām Al Baydāwī رحمه الله writes in his Tafsīr regarding this ayah, “Horrified with His Remembrance as He is the Greatest. It was said he (as mentioned in the verse) is the man who was going to commit a sin and then it was said to him,’ Fear Allāh!’ Hearing that, he won’t commit the sin fearing Allāh سبحانه و تعالى” [5]

People who have this quality are indeed the blessed ones as Qatadah رحمه الله said, “This is an attribute of the People of Imān.” [6]


[1] Madārij Al Salikīn

[2] Qur’an Al Karīm {8:2}

[3] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[4] Tafsīr Al abarī

[5] Tafsīr Al Baydāwī

[6] Tafsīr Al abarī

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

How many times do we tell ourselves that we will repent later and not now? How many times we hear people saying, “I am young, let me enjoy. I will repent when I will be old!” Are we waiting for death to strike us unawares when we have not repented? Till how long will we allow Shayṭān to deceive us? Allāh سبحانه و تعالى gives us the answer for this question by describing the people of Taqwa for whom Paradise is the reward,


وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ ذَكَرُوا اللَّهَ فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا لِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَن يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ وَلَمْ يُصِرُّوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلُوا وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

And those who, when they have committed Fahishah or wronged themselves with evil, remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins; – and none can forgive sins but Allah – And do not persist in what (wrong) they have done, while they know.[1]

Anas bin Mālik رضي الله عنه said, “I was told that when this Ayah, was revealed, Iblīs cried.”[2]

Mujāhid رحمه الله said, “These are two sins; Fāḥishah is one sin and their Dhulm upon themselves is another sin.”[3]

This ayah confirms with the ḥadīth when Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “Fear Allah wherever you may be; follow up an evil deed with a good one which will wipe (the former) out, and behave good-naturedly towards people.”[4] Asking for forgiveness sincerely is in itself a good deed that leads others.

Imām Al Wāhidī رحمه الله mentions the reason of revelation of this ayah, “Aṭa’ reported that Ibn ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said: “This was revealed about Nabhān, the seller of dates. A beautiful woman came to buy dates from him. He hugged and kissed her but then he regretted his action. He went to Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم and mentioned what he did. This verse was then revealed”. And he said, according to the narration of al-Kalbī: “Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم tied two men, one from the Helpers and one from Thaqīf, with the bond of brotherhood and they were inseparable. Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم went out one day to one of his military expeditions and the man from Thaqīf accompanied him, leaving his wife and business under the care of the Helper who used to look after the family of the man from Thaqīf. One day he saw the wife of his friend who had just finished having a bath, with her hair spread, and he fell for her. He entered in on her without asking permission and leaned to kiss her but she put her hand on her face such that he kissed the outside of her hand. But then he regretted what he had done, felt the shame of his action and retreated. Upon his retreat, his friend’s wife exclaimed: ‘Glory be to Allāh! You have betrayed your trust, disobeyed your Lord and failed to get what you desired!’ Regretting his action, the man went wandering in the mountains, to repent to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى, from his action. When the man from Thaqīf returned to his family, she informed him of what had happened. He went out looking for his friend until somebody told him where to find him. He found him in prostration, saying: ‘My Lord, my sin! My sin! I have betrayed my brother!’ His friend said: ‘O so-and-so come let us go to Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم and ask him about your sin, haply Allāh سبحانه و تعالى will ease your situation and relent on you’. And so he went back with him until they reached Madīnah one day, at the time of ‘Asr prayer and Jibrīl عليه السلام brought down the news of the acceptance of his repentance. Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم recited to him (And those who, when they do an evil thing) up to His saying (a bountiful reward for workers!). When he finished ‘Umar [ibn al-Khattab] رضي الله عنه asked: “O Rasūl Allāh! This applies specifically to him or is it to all people?’ Rasūl Allāh صلى الله عليه و سلم said: ‘No, it applies to all.’”[5]

The Tafsīr:


وَالَّذِينَ إِذَا فَعَلُوا فَاحِشَةً


الَّذِينَ refers to the Muttaqīn in the ayah 132

Imām Al Ṭabarī رحمه الله comments on this verse, “The meaning of Fāḥishah is the ugly action that takes one out of what Allāh (SWT has made permissible. And the roots of the Faḥsh (pl. Fāḥishah) is the unpleasantness and the exceeding of limits (set by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى) and amounts in everything

As-Suddi رحمه الله said that the Fāḥishah in this ayah adultery/fornication

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله writes in his book of tafsīr, “As for Fāḥishah, then there are two statements regarding it:


1) Major disobedience (i.e. major sins)

2) Usury and this is the saying of Jābir رحمه الله[6]

أَوْ ظَلَمُوا أَنفُسَهُمْ

Ibrāhīm رحمه الله said, “Dhulm is from Fāḥishah and Fāḥishah is from Dhulm.

Imām ash-Shawkānī رحمه الله writes in his tafsīr, “By committing sins.”[7]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله explains the meaning, “The intended meaning is minor disobedience (i.e. minor sin).”[8]


ذَكَرُوا اللَّهَ

Al Kalbī رحمه الله says, “They contemplate about it within themselves that they would be asked by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى about it.”[9]

Muqātil رحمه الله said, “They remember Allāh سبحانه و تعالى with tongue at the committing of sins.”[10]

Imām Al Qurṭubī رحمه الله comments on this by saying, “Meaning (they remember) with fear from His punishment and shyness from Him.”[11]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions two points regarding this phrase,”

1) They remember Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in their heart and do not forget Him. They choose to remember Him in repentance and forgiveness.”

2) They remember Allāh سبحانه و تعالى with the words, “O’ Allāh, forgive our sins!” For Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has made easy upon this Ummah what He made difficult upon Banī Isra’īl. When one of them committed a sin, he found the following morning, written on his door step, what he should do to expiate his sin, ‘cut off your nose’, ‘cut off your ear’, ‘do this or do that and ask for forgiveness.’ And this is the saying of Ibn Mas’ūd and ‘Aṭa bin Abi Rabāḥ رضي الله عنهما.


The meaning of the phrase فَاسْتَغْفَرُوا لِذُنُوبِهِمْ وَمَن يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلَّا اللَّهُ is clear so I will not go into its tafsīr


وَلَمْ يُصِرُّوا عَلَىٰ مَا فَعَلُوا وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ

Al Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathīr comments, “For they repent from their error, return to Allāh سبحانه و تعالى before death, do not insist on error, and if they err again, they repent from it.”[12]

Mujāhid and `Abdullāh bin ‘Ubayd bin ‘Umayr رحمهما الله commented, “Whoever repents, then Allah will forgive him.”[13]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله says,“ Sinning in secret and leaving it with seeking forgiveness from it as as-Suddī said.”[14]

May Allāh سبحانه و تعالى make us Muttaqīn. Allāhumma Amīn


[1] Surat `Al ‘Imrān, 3:135

[2] Tafsīr Al Qur’ān Al Karīm (Ibn Kathīr)

[3] Jāmi‘ Al Bayān Fī Tafsīr Al Qur’ān (Aabarī)

[4] Sunan at-Tirmidhī, ḥadīth is Ḥasan Ṣaḥiḥ

[5] Asbāb al-Nuzūl Al Wāhidī (Al Wāhidī)

[6] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn (Al Māwardī)

[7] Fat Al Qadīr(ash-Shawkānī)

[8] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn (Al Māwardī)

[9] Jāmi‘ Al Aḥkām Al Qur’ān (Al Qurṭubī)

[10] Ibid

[11] Ibid

[12] Tafsīr Al Qur’ān Al Karīm (Ibn Kathīr)

[13] Ibid

[14] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn (Al Māwardī)

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

AlḥamduLilāh Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has blessed us nowadays with having many Islamic seminars in which we learn His Din. We find that these events are organised by brothers and sisters who have to occasionally get into a small discussion to solve an issue. Even though these brothers and sisters follow the command of lowering the gaze, they often fall into other disobediences related to such conversations. Shayṭān being evil as he is lures the brother or sister into the flirtatious talk or even something similar to it which is clearly forbidden by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى when He سبحانه و تعالى addresses the Ummahāt Al Mu’minīn,

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

“O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner.” [1]

In this piece of writing, I would like to, inshā’Allāh, elaborate on the devil’s deception of the flirtatious talk by using the classical sources of Tafsīr.

فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ

As-Suddi and others رحمهم الله said, this means, do not be gentle in speech when addressing men.

‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said commenting on this ayah, “Do not be vile in speech nor soft in voice.”[2]

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said, “The softness in conversation which is hated between women and men that has a (bad) affect to the hearts of men (i.e. provokes ill behaviour).” [3]

Imām Al Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes in his Tafsīr, “Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has commanded them to be short and concise in their words (i.e. for short duration) and distinct in their speech.”[4]

Imām Al Samarqandī رحمه الله comments on this verse, “Don’t have mildness in speech and that is tenderness in words.”[5]

This does not mean that a brother or sister should start shouting at each other or something of the like. It basically means that their conversation should be consisting of short and concise words that are said without the tenderness and softness but with a strong tone. This is all because Allāh سبحانه و تعالى says,

وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا

“And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a Fāḥishah”[6]

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى did not say وَلَا تَفْعَلُوا الزِّنَا i.e. “Do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse…” thus it is an obligation upon us to stay away from any act that leads us to zinā

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions six points regarding this phrase of the ayah:

1) Do not be gentle in speech

2) Do not be vile in conversation as said by ‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما

3) Do not be lowly in words as said by Al Farā’ رحمه الله

4) Do not be obscene in speech as said Al Ḥasan رحمه الله

5) It is a talk (i.e. mentioned in the ayah) in it resembles doubtfulness.

6) It is that talk of women that have impact to the hearts of men as mentioned by Ibn Zayd رحمه الله[7]


فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ

There has been a difference of opinion amongst the scholars of interpretation of the word مَرَضٌ:

Opinion 1:

مَرَضٌ in this verse means nifāq (hypocrisy) and this is the opinion of Qatādah رحمه الله[8]

Opinion 2:

مَرَضٌ in this verse means desire and lust to commit adultery/fornication and this is the opinion of ‘Ikrimah رحمه الله[9]

Imām Al Ṭabarī رحمه الله gives his own explanation, “He in whose heart is a disease of weakness should be moved with desire and that is the weakness of Imān in his heart.” [10]

وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said: “Decent and honourable talk that is known to be good.” [11]

Al Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله then says, “This means that she should address ghayr maram men in a manner in which there is no softness (i.e., a woman should not address a ghayr maram man in the same way that she addresses her husband).” [12]

‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said, “They are commanded to enjoin good and forbid evil.”[13]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions three points regarding this phrase of the ayah:

1) Correct and proper words as mentioned by Al Kalbī رحمه الله

2) Pure and sober words as mentioned by Al Daḥāk رحمه الله

3) Nice and decent words[14]

So in conclusion, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in this ayah tells us how to avoid one of the many paths that lead to the horrible act of zinā of which talking to the opposite gender is one. And indeed He سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Qur’an Al Karīm, Surat Al Aḥzāb , ayah 32

[2] Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr

[3] Tafsīr Al abarī

[4] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[5] Bar Al ‘Ulūm

[6]Qur’an Al Karīm, Surat Al Isrā’ , ayah 32

[7] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn

[8] Tafsīr Al Tabarī

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr

[12] Ibid

[13] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[14] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Allah سبحانه و تعالى says in Surat Al A’raaf,


وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالْإِنسِ ۖ لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

“And surely, We have created many of the jinns and mankind for Hell. They have hearts wherewith they understand not, they have eyes wherewith they see not, and they have ears wherewith they hear not (the truth). They are like cattle, nay even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones.”[1]

Out of His fairness, Allah سبحانه و تعالى describes to us the heedless people so we can take guidance and leave the wrong path we are upon currently towards Siraat Al Mustaqeem.

Al Hasan, Al Suddi, Mujahid & ‘Abdullah bin al-‘Abbas رضي الله عنهم said regarding the word ذَرَأْنَا that it means “We Created.”[2] We is used for Allah سبحانه و تعالى as in a royal ‘We’ not a plural ‘We’


وَلَقَدْ ذَرَأْنَا لِجَهَنَّمَ

Al Haafidh Ibn Kathir رحمه الله wrote in his tafsir explaining this phrase, “We made a share in the Fire.”


كَثِيرًا مِّنَ الْجِنِّ وَالإِنْسِ

He then continues, “We prepared them for it by their performance of the deeds of its people. When Allah سبحانه و تعالى intended to create the creation, He knew what their work will be before they existed. He wrote all this in a Book, kept with Him, fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth. As Imam Muslim رحمه الله has recorded a hadith Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying, “Verily, Allah decided the destination and due measurement of the creation fifty thousand years before He created the heavens and earth, and His Throne was over the water.” [3]


لَهُمْ قُلُوبٌ لَّا يَفْقَهُونَ بِهَا

Then Allah سبحانه و تعالى describes the people from amongst the Jinn and Humans he has created for Jahannam starting off by mention their condition of their hearts as Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said as a part of a longer hadith,

“…Beware, in the body there is a flesh; if it is sound, the whole body is sound, and if it is corrupt, the whole body is corrupt, and behold, it is the heart.”[4]

Al Haafidh Ibn Hajr Al ‘Asqalaani رحمه الله said, “The heart has been singled out for this because it is the leader of the body, and through the purification of the leader the subjects become purified, and with his corruption, they become corrupted.”[5]

As for the Tafsir of the ayah, Imam Al Tabari رحمه الله says, “These people are those who are created for Jahannam from His creation; who do not ponder with it (i.e. the heart) the ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى nor contemplate the proofs of His Oneness nor do they think over the arguments proving His Messengers عليهم صلاة و السلام. However, they do know the Oneness of their Lord سبحانه و تعالى and they are acquainted with the reality of Prophet Hood of the Prophets عليهم صلاة و السلام. Thus, our Lord سبحانه و تعالى has described them with not understanding with it (i.e. heart) because of their turning away from the Truth and forsaking of their pondering over truthfulness of success and extent of thanklessness.”[6]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله said, “Because they don’t benefit from it (what is revealed) and they do not contemplate upon the rewards nor fear the punishments.”[7]

Mujahid bin Jabr رحمه الله said, “They don’t understand with it (i.e. heart) the affairs of hereafter.”[8]

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله writes, “They don’t realise good and guidance.”[9]

This phrase of the ayah talks about those people who have no interest in gaining the knowledge of the Deen because when they are told to remember Allah سبحانه و تعالى and learn about His Oneness and study the Messengers عليهم صلاة و السلام, they refuse to do so and prefer to remain ignorant. Thus, when they are reminded of the signs pointing to the Oneness of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they refuse to know them even though they believe in them. And since they have no knowledge, they lack the fear of Jahannam and love of Jannah.

Then Allah سبحانه و تعالى continues,


وَلَهُمْ أَعْيُنٌ لَّا يُبْصِرُونَ بِهَا

It is noted from the Tafasir that this section of the ayah has similar meaning to the previous one but in addition the scholars write that they (the people mentioned in this ayah) do not see the Truth. [10]


وَلَهُمْ آذَانٌ لَّا يَسْمَعُونَ بِهَا

Imams Al Tabari , Al Baghawi & Al Shawkani رحمهم الله say regarding this verse, “The Book of Allah, rather than thinking and contemplating about them, they turn away from them.” [11]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله writes regarding the verse, “Admonish.”

Even though these people hear the ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, they do not contemplate and think over it rather they turn away from them.


أُولَـٰئِكَ كَالْأَنْعَامِ بَلْ هُمْ أَضَلُّ ۚ أُولَـٰئِكَ هُمُ الْغَافِلُونَ

Mujahid رحمه الله said regarding this, “(After mentioning the other characteristics) then he made their mention like the cattle then made them even worse than cattle and then finally mentioned that they are the heedless ones.”[12]

Imam Al Qurtubi رحمه الله says, “Because they are not guided towards the rewards thus they are like cattle whose intention is to just eat and drink. But they (the people) are more misguided since the cattle can at least understand its benefit and harm and obeys its owner but they are even opposite of that. They forsake contemplation (of ayaat of Allah سبحانه و تعالى) and turn away from Paradise and Hell.”[13]

The benefit of the people lie in learning the ‘Aqeedah of Ahlus Sunnah wal Jama‘ah and fundamentals of Islam, but there are some heedless people who do not understand this importance of this and thus are more misguided that cattle who at least comprehend their benefit and loss whereas these people do not. Allah سبحانه و تعالى has named the Qur’an as Al Furqan which means a criterion that distinguishes between the Truth and falsehood. If this criterion is not recited and studied, then it is a great possibility one would fall into actions that are forbidden in the Shari‘ah of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم as one of the poets said,


عَرَفْتُ شَرْ لَا لِشَرْ **** لَكِنْ تُلَا فِيْهِ

وَ مَنْ لَا يَعْرِفُ شَرْ**** جَدِيْر أَنْ يَقَعَ فِيْهِ

“I learned evil not to indulge in it,
rather to abstain from it,
and whoever does not know what evil is,
it is likely that he will fall into it.”

May Allah سبحانه و تعالى make us amongst those who benefit greatly from this ayah. Ameen

And Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Surat Al A’raaf, ayah 179

[2] Tafsir Al Tabari

[3] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[4] Sahih Al Bukhari & Sahih Muslim

[5] Diseases of the Hearts and its Cure’ compiler’s foreword

[6] Tafsir Al Tabari

[7] Tafsir Al Qurtubi

[8] Fath Al Qadeer

[9] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[10] Tafasir Al Tabari, Al Qurtubi, Al Fayruzabadi, Fath Al Qadeer

[11] Tafasir Al Tabari, Tafsir Al Baghawi & Fath Al Qadeer [the last 2 Imams write , “The Book of Allah,” or its like not the rest]

[12] Tafsir Al Tabari

[13] Tafsir Al Qurtubi

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

Many a times we see brothers and sisters in situations when they are trying to convince their parents or their friends about some Islamic issue when they find their close ones doing something haraam. And then they might even complain that their parents are not listening to them even though they have provided sufficient adillah. Do you notice a missing ingredient here? It is nothing other than good akhlaaq when trying to persuade someone or even trying to convey some sort of message that might receive a bad response.

Allah سبحانه و تعالى says,

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ ۖ وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ

“And by the Mercy of Allâh, You dealt with them gently. And had You been Severe and harsh hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allâh’s) Forgiveness for them …” [1]

In this ayah Allah سبحانه و تعالى tells us how Merciful He has been with our Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم by making him deal gently with the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم. And this is the type of manner we should employ when we give Da‘wah to others or when we try to invite others to an Islamic event.

Imam Al-Hasan Al-Basri رحمه الله said that “This, indeed, is the description of the behaviour that Allah سبحانه و تعالى sent Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم with.” [2]

Indeed it was from the Infinite Mercy of Allah سبحانه و تعالى that He made Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم gentle and kind with his companions رضي الله عنه and set us the best example of dealing with others.

فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله writes in his Tafsir, “Easy and soft manners, great toleration towards them (Sahabah رضي الله عنهم) and did not rush with them even one day in what they were indulged.”[3] Ease in dealing and having good manners is something that carries a lot of weight when one is trying to teach others. Usually one rushes in an action when he is getting frustrated with it and can’t bear it any more whereas the manner of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم was the exact contrary of it.

Al Qushayri رحمه الله said, “Know that Allah سبحانه و تعالى loves those servants who have a compassionate character and a servant does not have mercy except when Allah سبحانه و تعالى has mercy upon him.”[4]

وَلَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ

Qatadah رحمه الله said, “In order that Allah سبحانه و تعالى would purify (Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم’s heart) from dryness and hardness and make it close, merciful and compassionate to the believers.”

Ibn Ishaaq رحمه الله said, “It is the mention of the gentleness with them (Sahabah رضي الله عنهم) and his patience with their weaknesses.” [5]

Goodness and softness attract people and thus it is amongst the most important characteristics of a Da‘ee (caller to Allah سبحانه و تعالى). It is from the built in nature of a man to go where he is treated good and therefore if one treats other in a good manner, he will receive the same in return insha’Allah.

فَظْ as described by Imam Al Baydaawi رحمه الله means dry character. [6]

Imam Al Shawkaani رحمه الله described the same word with unpleasant character. [7]

Imam Al Baghawi رحمه الله explained the word as, “Bad character and lack of patience.”[8]

This type of nature is of a person whose surroundings do not concerns him much and have no or almost no affect on him. It also means to not have much care of the people’s issues and treat them insignificant.

غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ

Al Kalbi رحمه الله said, “فَظْ is in speech and غَلِيظَ الْقَلْب in action.” [9]

Imam Al Th‘alabi رحمه الله said, “Words on an angry face, lack of clemency and consideration.”[10]

لَانفَضُّوا مِنْ حَوْلِكَ

This means that they might have left or departed from you (Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم)[11]

Because if people are treated with bad manners then they will for sure try to leave and be away from that person of evil character and this is human nature. Thus, if a child tries to persuade his mother to buy him to but starts misbehaving, then she will start ignoring the child and not get him what he desires.

Thus, we learn from this ayah:

1) The Mercy Allah سبحانه و تعالى had on His Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم

2) Sunnah of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم in dealing with other people.

3) The lofty character of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم

4) The Da‘wah technique of Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم

5) Importance of good manners in engagement with others

6) Evils of bad personality

7) Meanings of فَظْ and غَلِيظَ الْقَلْب and the differences between them

8) Effect of evil and vile behaviour

And indeed, Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Surat `Al ‘Imran, ayah 159

[2] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[3] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[4] Al Tahbeer

[5] Tafsir Al Tabari

[6] Tafsir Al Baydaawi

[7] Fath Al Qadeer

[8] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[9] Tafsir Al Baghawi

[10] Tafsir Al Th‘alabi

[11] Tafsir Al Tabari

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Want to be Successful?

بسم الله الرحمان الحيم

الحمد الله

All Praise is due to Allah سبحانه و تعالى. May Peace and Blessings be upon Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, his progeny, his companions رضي الله عنهم.

It would unreasonable that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will tell us about Jannah and not tell us how to get to it. And it would be impossible that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will inform us about Jahannam and not tell us how to escape it. Thus, He سبحانه و تعالى has said in a beautiful verse,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and do Ribaat and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.”

‘A’ishah رضي الله عنها says, “Whenever an ayah starts with ‘O’ you who believe’ then bring forth your ear to listen to it carefully.”

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا

The interpreters of the Qur`an have differed on the meaning of this ayah. Some have said “That’s means: Endure with your religion, be more patient with the disbelievers and do Ribaat against them.”

Qatadah رحمه الله says, “It is the forbearance on the obedience of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, being patient with the people of misguidance and guard the borderlines in the Path of Allah سبحانه و تعالى.”

Muhammad bin Ka‘b AlQuradhi رحمه الله has said about this ayah, “Endure with your religion, be patient with the Promise that you have been Promised with and do Ribaat against your enemies until they leave their religion to follow yours.”

Others have said something similar but with the only difference that it means, “Carry on with Jihaad.”[1]

Al Hasan Al Basri رحمه الله said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam. They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity, until they die as Muslims. They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.” Similar explanation given by several other scholars among the Salaf.[2]

Meaning of being Patient with the Obedience and Religion of Allah سبحانه و تعالى:

Al Haafidh Ibn Al Qayyim رحمه الله says, “Patience in worshipping Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and carrying out His instructions means that you perform the prescribed acts of worship regularly and do so sincerely and with knowledge. Worship that is not performed regularly is of no value. Even if worship is performed regularly, there are two dangers. Firstly, we risk losing our sincerity, if the motive for performing prayers is not to please Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and draw closer to Him. So to protect our worship we must make sure that we are sincere. Secondly, we must be sure never to deviate from the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, so we have to ensure that our worship is done according to the Sunnah.”[3]

As have read in the quote above, patience in worship is make sure that one’s intention to do the act is for the sake of Allah سبحانه و تعالى or not and doing the action according to the Sunnah of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم. This means we should not get frustrated with checking our intentions frequently in other words, being happy with Qadhaa’ wal Qadr. This includes the reaction of people and events that take place in one’s life as we learn from the following ayah,

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O My son! Aqim­is­Salât (perform As­Salât), Enjoin (people) for Al­Ma’rûf (Islâmic Monotheism and All that is good), and forbid (people) from Al­Munkar (i.e. disbelief In the Oneness of Allâh, polytheism of All kinds and All that is evil and bad), and bear with patience whatever befall you. Verily! These are some of the important Commandments ordered by Allâh with no exemption.”[4]

Meaning of Ribaat:

As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverance. It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn `Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رضي الله عنهم stated. [5]

Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade? Performing perfect ablution in unfavourable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat.” [6]

They also say that the Murabatah in the above Ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory. There are several ahadith that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards.[7] Sahl bin Sa‘d As-Sa‘idi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“A Day of Ribaat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it”[8]

Salman Al-Farisi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Ribaat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyaam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribaat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.”[9]

‘AbduLlah Ibn `Abbas رضي الله عنهما said that he heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying,

“Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.”[10]

And finally, Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him. Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction; if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.”[11]

وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

This means have Taqwa of Allah سبحانه و تعالى O’ believers! And beware of opposing His Commands or exceeding His limits  Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رحمه الله said regarding this verse, “Fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.” [12]

This is one of the ways to be successful Allah سبحانه و تعالى has talked about in Qur`an and indeed being successful does not mean achieving an engineering degree nor getting married rather it means being rewarded with Jannah and indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best

References

1 Tafsir Al Tabari

2 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

3 ‘Uddaat Al Saabireen wa Dhaakiraat Al Shakireen

4 Surat Luqman, 31:17

5 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

6 Ibn Abi Hatim, Sahih Muslim and Sunan An-Nasa’i

7Tafsir Ibn Kathir

8 Sahih Al Bukhari

9 Sahih Muslim

10 Sunan Al Tirmidhi

11 Sahih Al Bukhari

12 Tafsir Al Tabari

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