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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

AlḥamduLilāh Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has blessed us nowadays with having many Islamic seminars in which we learn His Din. We find that these events are organised by brothers and sisters who have to occasionally get into a small discussion to solve an issue. Even though these brothers and sisters follow the command of lowering the gaze, they often fall into other disobediences related to such conversations. Shayṭān being evil as he is lures the brother or sister into the flirtatious talk or even something similar to it which is clearly forbidden by Allāh سبحانه و تعالى when He سبحانه و تعالى addresses the Ummahāt Al Mu’minīn,

يَا نِسَاءَ النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ ۚ إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

“O wives of the Prophet! You are not like any other women. If you keep your duty (to Allah), then be not soft in speech, lest he in whose heart is a disease should be moved with desire, but speak in an honourable manner.” [1]

In this piece of writing, I would like to, inshā’Allāh, elaborate on the devil’s deception of the flirtatious talk by using the classical sources of Tafsīr.

فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ

As-Suddi and others رحمهم الله said, this means, do not be gentle in speech when addressing men.

‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said commenting on this ayah, “Do not be vile in speech nor soft in voice.”[2]

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said, “The softness in conversation which is hated between women and men that has a (bad) affect to the hearts of men (i.e. provokes ill behaviour).” [3]

Imām Al Qurṭubī رحمه الله writes in his Tafsīr, “Allāh سبحانه و تعالى has commanded them to be short and concise in their words (i.e. for short duration) and distinct in their speech.”[4]

Imām Al Samarqandī رحمه الله comments on this verse, “Don’t have mildness in speech and that is tenderness in words.”[5]

This does not mean that a brother or sister should start shouting at each other or something of the like. It basically means that their conversation should be consisting of short and concise words that are said without the tenderness and softness but with a strong tone. This is all because Allāh سبحانه و تعالى says,

وَلَا تَقْرَبُوا الزِّنَا ۖ إِنَّهُ كَانَ فَاحِشَةً وَسَاءَ سَبِيلًا

“And come not near to the unlawful sexual intercourse. Verily, it is a Fāḥishah”[6]

Allāh سبحانه و تعالى did not say وَلَا تَفْعَلُوا الزِّنَا i.e. “Do not commit unlawful sexual intercourse…” thus it is an obligation upon us to stay away from any act that leads us to zinā

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions six points regarding this phrase of the ayah:

1) Do not be gentle in speech

2) Do not be vile in conversation as said by ‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما

3) Do not be lowly in words as said by Al Farā’ رحمه الله

4) Do not be obscene in speech as said Al Ḥasan رحمه الله

5) It is a talk (i.e. mentioned in the ayah) in it resembles doubtfulness.

6) It is that talk of women that have impact to the hearts of men as mentioned by Ibn Zayd رحمه الله[7]


فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ

There has been a difference of opinion amongst the scholars of interpretation of the word مَرَضٌ:

Opinion 1:

مَرَضٌ in this verse means nifāq (hypocrisy) and this is the opinion of Qatādah رحمه الله[8]

Opinion 2:

مَرَضٌ in this verse means desire and lust to commit adultery/fornication and this is the opinion of ‘Ikrimah رحمه الله[9]

Imām Al Ṭabarī رحمه الله gives his own explanation, “He in whose heart is a disease of weakness should be moved with desire and that is the weakness of Imān in his heart.” [10]

وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا

Ibn Zayd رحمه الله said: “Decent and honourable talk that is known to be good.” [11]

Al Ḥāfidh Ibn Kathīr رحمه الله then says, “This means that she should address ghayr maram men in a manner in which there is no softness (i.e., a woman should not address a ghayr maram man in the same way that she addresses her husband).” [12]

‘Abdullāh bin al ‘Abbās رضي الله عنهما said, “They are commanded to enjoin good and forbid evil.”[13]

Imām Al Māwardī رحمه الله mentions three points regarding this phrase of the ayah:

1) Correct and proper words as mentioned by Al Kalbī رحمه الله

2) Pure and sober words as mentioned by Al Daḥāk رحمه الله

3) Nice and decent words[14]

So in conclusion, Allāh سبحانه و تعالى in this ayah tells us how to avoid one of the many paths that lead to the horrible act of zinā of which talking to the opposite gender is one. And indeed He سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Qur’an Al Karīm, Surat Al Aḥzāb , ayah 32

[2] Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr

[3] Tafsīr Al abarī

[4] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[5] Bar Al ‘Ulūm

[6]Qur’an Al Karīm, Surat Al Isrā’ , ayah 32

[7] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn

[8] Tafsīr Al Tabarī

[9] Ibid

[10] Ibid

[11] Tafsīr Ibn Kathīr

[12] Ibid

[13] Tafsīr Al Qurṭubī

[14] Al Nakat wal ‘Uyūn

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بسم الله الرمان الرحيم

السلام عيكم و رحمة الله و بركاته

الحمد الله

The defeat at Badr was an ignominy which the Quraysh pride could not leave unavenged. Revenge was, therefore, the catchword all over Makkah. The mushrikeen even forbade lamenting over their murdered people, or ransoming their captives at Badr Battle lest the Muslims should realize the grave degree of sadness and feeling of tragedy they were experiencing. Due to this amongst many other reasons, the mushrikeen decided to attack the Muslims once again.

When the news reached Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم in Madinah, he immediately went to his Sahabah رضي الله عنهم for shura. Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم advised them that they should defend within Madinah but some of the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم, who had missed Al-Jihad in Badr, suggested that the Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم should go out of Madinah and urged him to accept their point of view. One of them said: “O, Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, for long time we have been looking forward to this day; and we have implored Allah to make such a day draw near. Thanks to Allah it is time to fight. So let us go out and fight our enemies lest they should think that we have lost heart and do not dare to fight them.” Hamzah bin ‘Abdil Muttalib رضي الله عنه the paternal uncle of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, who had already covered the ornaments of his sword with idolaters’ blood in Badr Battle, was ahead of those enthusiastics who urged him to go out and meet the disbelievers. He said to Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم: “By Allah, Who has sent the Book down unto you, I will not taste food till I fight them with my sword outside Madinah.” After weighing careful the pros and cons of the issue, it was decided that the enemy should be resisted outside the city at Uhud.

Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم led the afternoon prayer with crowds of people. Then he entered his house accompanied by his two friends Abu Bakr and ‘Umar رضي الله عنهما. They helped him dress and wear his head cloth. He صلى الله عليه و سلم armed himself and wore two armours one over the other. He صلى الله عليه و سلم then wore his sword and went out to meet people. People were waiting for him impatiently. Sa‘d bin Mu‘adh and Usayd bin Hudair رضي الله عنهما blamed people for pressing on Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم. They said: “You have forced Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم to fight the enemy outside Madinah.” Therefore they were determined to leave the whole matter to Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, and blamed themselves for what they had already done. When Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلمcame out, they said: “O Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, we should have not disagreed with you. So, you are free to do what you desire. If you prefer to stay inside Madinah we will stay with you. Upon this Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said something that should be written in gold: “It does not befit a Prophet that once he had put on armour, he should take it off, until Allah has decided between him and the enemy.”

Lessons learnt from this incident:

1) 1)Importance of making shura as Allah سبحانه و تعالى said describing the people who trust Him, “And those who answer the Call of their Lord and perform As-Salat, and who (conduct) their affairs by mutual consultation, and who spend of what We have bestowed on them.[1] And also when He سبحانه و تعالى was describing the favour He had upon Rasul Allah (SAWS), “And by the Mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And had you been severe and harsh-hearted, they would have broken away from about you; so pass over (their faults), and ask (Allah’s) Forgiveness for them; and consult them in the affairs. Then when you have taken a decision, put your trust in Allah, certainly, Allah loves those who put their trust (in Him).[2]

2) Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم was not arrogant because consulted with his Sahabah رضي الله عنهم and listened to their opinion

3) Love of Jihaad which is the noblest deed in Islam Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم and the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم had.

4) The care for the feelings of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم and love for him the Sahabah رضي الله عنهم showed when they thought they had coerced him into something Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم did not want to do.

5) Firmness in decision of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم in going out to Uhud to fight the kuffar. Another thing to note is that Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم was amongst the 5 Prophets عليهم الصلوات و السلام who were the title, “Ulul ‘Azm,” meaning the “Possessors of Strong Will,” the Prophets عليهم الصلوات و السلام were: Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, ‘Isa and Muhammad.

6) We also learn the Tawakkul Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم had in Allah سبحانه و تعالى

7) Bravery of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم and that shows one of his characteristics of manhood

8) Status of Prophets عليهم الصلوات و السلام in general with his صلى الله عليه و سلم’s statement, ‘It does not befit a Prophet that once he had put on armour, he should take it off, until Allah has decided between him and the enemy,’ which was of honour and nobility.

9) Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم even though he was a Prophet, had to prepare with worldly means contrary to the popular belief which is a Prophet عليه الصلاة و السلام does not need to prepare in worldly means because Allah سبحانه و تعالى would him.

10) Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم did not have the knowledge of the Unseen because if he did, then he wouldn’t have said, “…until Allah has decided between him and the enemy,” rather he would have said, “until Allah سبحانه و تعالى has given him victory.”

11) Making Allah سبحانه و تعالى the Judge in everything due to the saying of Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم“…until Allah has decided between him and the enemy.”

12) A Leader should represent his people and not vice versa and we learn this from, “…until Allah has decided between him and the enemy.” Notice that Rasul Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم used the word ‘him’ to represent the Muslims not us which shows the how great a leader Rasul Allahعليه الصلاة و السلامwas.

And indeed, Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best.


[1] Surat Al Shura, ayah 38

[2] Surat `Ale ‘Imraan, ayah 159

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Want to be Successful?

بسم الله الرحمان الحيم

الحمد الله

All Praise is due to Allah سبحانه و تعالى. May Peace and Blessings be upon Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم, his progeny, his companions رضي الله عنهم.

It would unreasonable that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will tell us about Jannah and not tell us how to get to it. And it would be impossible that Allah سبحانه و تعالى will inform us about Jahannam and not tell us how to escape it. Thus, He سبحانه و تعالى has said in a beautiful verse,

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

“O you who believe! Endure and be more patient, and do Ribaat and have Taqwa of Allah, so that you may be successful.”

‘A’ishah رضي الله عنها says, “Whenever an ayah starts with ‘O’ you who believe’ then bring forth your ear to listen to it carefully.”

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اصْبِرُوا وَصَابِرُوا وَرَابِطُوا

The interpreters of the Qur`an have differed on the meaning of this ayah. Some have said “That’s means: Endure with your religion, be more patient with the disbelievers and do Ribaat against them.”

Qatadah رحمه الله says, “It is the forbearance on the obedience of Allah سبحانه و تعالى, being patient with the people of misguidance and guard the borderlines in the Path of Allah سبحانه و تعالى.”

Muhammad bin Ka‘b AlQuradhi رحمه الله has said about this ayah, “Endure with your religion, be patient with the Promise that you have been Promised with and do Ribaat against your enemies until they leave their religion to follow yours.”

Others have said something similar but with the only difference that it means, “Carry on with Jihaad.”[1]

Al Hasan Al Basri رحمه الله said, “The believers are commanded to be patient in the religion that Allah chose for them, Islam. They are not allowed to abandon it in times of comfort or hardship, ease or calamity, until they die as Muslims. They are also commanded to endure against their enemies, those who hid the truth about their religion.” Similar explanation given by several other scholars among the Salaf.[2]

Meaning of being Patient with the Obedience and Religion of Allah سبحانه و تعالى:

Al Haafidh Ibn Al Qayyim رحمه الله says, “Patience in worshipping Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and carrying out His instructions means that you perform the prescribed acts of worship regularly and do so sincerely and with knowledge. Worship that is not performed regularly is of no value. Even if worship is performed regularly, there are two dangers. Firstly, we risk losing our sincerity, if the motive for performing prayers is not to please Allâh سبحانه و تعالى and draw closer to Him. So to protect our worship we must make sure that we are sincere. Secondly, we must be sure never to deviate from the way of the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم, so we have to ensure that our worship is done according to the Sunnah.”[3]

As have read in the quote above, patience in worship is make sure that one’s intention to do the act is for the sake of Allah سبحانه و تعالى or not and doing the action according to the Sunnah of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم. This means we should not get frustrated with checking our intentions frequently in other words, being happy with Qadhaa’ wal Qadr. This includes the reaction of people and events that take place in one’s life as we learn from the following ayah,

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ

“O My son! Aqim­is­Salât (perform As­Salât), Enjoin (people) for Al­Ma’rûf (Islâmic Monotheism and All that is good), and forbid (people) from Al­Munkar (i.e. disbelief In the Oneness of Allâh, polytheism of All kinds and All that is evil and bad), and bear with patience whatever befall you. Verily! These are some of the important Commandments ordered by Allâh with no exemption.”[4]

Meaning of Ribaat:

As for Murabatah, it is to endure in acts of worship and perseverance. It also means to await prayer after prayer, as Ibn `Abbas, Sahl bin Hanif and Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رضي الله عنهم stated. [5]

Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه that the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Should I tell you about actions with which Allah forgives sins and raises the grade? Performing perfect ablution in unfavourable conditions, the many steps one takes to the Masajid, and awaiting prayer after the prayer, for this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat, this is the Ribaat.” [6]

They also say that the Murabatah in the above Ayah refers to battles against the enemy, and manning Muslim outposts to protect them from enemy incursions inside Muslim territory. There are several ahadith that encourage Murabatah and mention its rewards.[7] Sahl bin Sa‘d As-Sa‘idi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“A Day of Ribaat in the cause of Allah is better than this life and all that is in it”[8]

Salman Al-Farisi رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Ribaat for a day and a night is better than fasting the days of a month and its Qiyaam (voluntary prayer at night). If one dies in Ribaat, his regular righteous deeds that he used to perform will keep being added to his account and he will receive his provision, and will be saved from the trials of the grave.”[9]

‘AbduLlah Ibn `Abbas رضي الله عنهما said that he heard the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم saying,

“Two eyes shall not be touched by the Fire: an eye that cried for fear from Allah and an eye that spent the night guarding in Allah’s cause.”[10]

And finally, Abu Hurayrah رضي الله عنه said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم said,

“Let the servant of the Dinar, the servant of the Dirham and the servant of the Khamisah (of clothes) perish, as he is pleased if these things are given to him, and if not, he is displeased. Let such a person perish and be humiliated, and if he is pierced with a thorn, let him not find anyone to take it out for him. Paradise is for him who holds the reins of his horse, striving in Allah’s cause, with his hair unkempt and feet covered with dust: if he is appointed to the vanguard, he is perfectly satisfied with his post of guarding, and if he is appointed in the rearguard, he accepts his post with satisfaction; if he asks for permission he is not permitted, and if he intercedes, his intercession is not accepted.”[11]

وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ

This means have Taqwa of Allah سبحانه و تعالى O’ believers! And beware of opposing His Commands or exceeding His limits  Muhammad bin Ka‘b Al Quradhi رحمه الله said regarding this verse, “Fear Me concerning what is between you and Me, so that you may acquire success when you meet Me tomorrow.” [12]

This is one of the ways to be successful Allah سبحانه و تعالى has talked about in Qur`an and indeed being successful does not mean achieving an engineering degree nor getting married rather it means being rewarded with Jannah and indeed Allah سبحانه و تعالى knows best

References

1 Tafsir Al Tabari

2 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

3 ‘Uddaat Al Saabireen wa Dhaakiraat Al Shakireen

4 Surat Luqman, 31:17

5 Tafsir Ibn Kathir

6 Ibn Abi Hatim, Sahih Muslim and Sunan An-Nasa’i

7Tafsir Ibn Kathir

8 Sahih Al Bukhari

9 Sahih Muslim

10 Sunan Al Tirmidhi

11 Sahih Al Bukhari

12 Tafsir Al Tabari

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Fitnah

Fitnah

بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

السلام عليكم و رحمة الله و بركته

الحمد الله

Meanings of the Fitnah:

1 – The word fitnah from a linguistic point of view:

Al-Azhari said: “The Arabic word fitnah includes meanings of testing and trial. The root is taken from the phrase fatantu al-fiddah wa’l-dhahab (I assayed (tested the quality of) the silver and gold), meaning I melted the metals to separate the bad from the good. Similarly, Allaah says in the Qur’aan (interpretation of the meaning): ‘(It will be) a Day when they will be tried [yuftanoona] (punished, i.e. burnt) over the Fire!’ [al-Dhaariyaat 51:13], meaning, burning them with fire.” (Tahdheeb al-Lughah, 14/196).

Ibn Faaris said: “Fa-ta-na is a sound root which indicates testing or trial.” (Maqaayees al-Lughah, 4/472). This is the basic meaning of the word fitnah in Arabic.

Ibn al-‘Atheer said: “Fitnah: trial or test… The word is often used to describe tests in which something disliked is eliminated. Later it was also often used in the sense of sin, kufr (disbelief), fighting, burning, removing and diverting.” (al-Nihaayah, 3/410. Ibn Hajar said something similar in al-Fath, 13/3).

Ibn al-‘Arabi summed up the meanings of fitnah when he said: “Fitnah means testing, fitnah means trial, fitnah means wealth, fitnah means children, fitnah means kufr, fitnah means differences of opinion among people, fitnah means burning with fire.” (Lisaan al-‘Arab by Ibn Manzoor).


2 – Meanings of the word fitnah in the Qur’aan and Sunnah:

1-     Testing and trial, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“Do people think that they will be left alone because they say: ‘We believe, and will not be tested [la yuftanoon]” [al-‘Ankaboot 29:2]

i.e., that they will not be subjected to trial, as Ibn Jareer said.

2-     Blocking the way and turning people away, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“but beware of them lest they turn you [yaftinooka] (O Muhammad) far away from some of that which Allaah has sent down to you” [al-Maa’idah 5:49]

Al-Qurtubi said: this means blocking your way and turning you away.

3-     Persecution, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“Then, verily, your Lord for those who emigrated after they had been put to trials [futinoo] and thereafter strove hard and fought (for the Cause of Allaah) and were patient, verily, your Lord afterward is, Oft‑Forgiving, Most Merciful” [al-Nahl 16:110]

Put to trial means persecuted.

4-     Shirk and kufr, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“And fight them until there is no more Fitnah (disbelief and worshipping of others along with Allaah)” [al-Baqarah 2:193]

Ibn Katheer said: this means shirk (worshipping others besides Allaah).

5-     Falling into sin and hypocrisy, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“(The hypocrites) will call the believers: “Were we not with you?” The believers will reply: “Yes! But you led yourselves into temptations [fatantum anfusakum], you looked forward for our destruction; you doubted (in Faith) and you were deceived by false desires” [al-Hadeed 57:14]

Al-Baghawi said: i.e., you made yourselves fall into hypocrisy and you destroyed yourselves by means of sin and whims and desires.

6-     Confusing truth with falsehood, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“And those who disbelieve are allies of one another, (and) if you (Muslims of the whole world collectively) do not do so [i.e. become allies, as one united block under one Khaleefah (a chief Muslim ruler for the whole Muslim world) to make victorious Allaah’s religion of Islamic Monotheism], there will be Fitnah (wars, battles, polytheism) and oppression on the earth, and a great mischief and corruption (appearance of polytheism)”[al-Anfaal 6:73]

What this means is that “unless believers are taken as close friends instead of disbelievers, even if they are relatives, there will be fitnah on earth, i.e., truth will be confused with falsehood.” This is how it is explained in Jaami’ al-Bayaan by Ibn Jareer.

7-     Misguidance, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“And whomsoever Allaah wants to put in Al‑Fitnah (error, because of his rejecting of Faith), you can do nothing for him against Allaah” [al-Maa’idah 5:41]

The meaning of fitnah here is misguidance. Al-Bahr al-Muheet by Abu Hayaan, 4/262.

8-     Killing and taking prisoners, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“if you fear that the disbelievers may put you in trial [yaftinakum] (attack you)”

[al-Nisa’ 4:101]

This refers to the kaafirs attacking the Muslims whilst they are praying and prostrating, in order to kill them or take them prisoner, as stated by Ibn Jareer.

9-     Difference among people and lack of agreement, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“and they would have hurried about in your midst (spreading corruption) and sowing sedition among you [yabghoonakum al-fitnah]” [al-Tawbah 9:47]

i.e., they would have stirred up differences amongst you, as it says in al-Kashshaaf, 2/277.

10-Insanity, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“Which of you is afflicted with madness (maftoon)” [al-Qalam 68:6] Here it means madness.

11-Burning with fire, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning):

“Verily, those who put into trial [fatanoo] the believing men and believing women (by torturing them and burning them)”[al-Burooj 85:10]

Ibn Hajar said: the meaning may be understood from the context. (al-Fath 11/176)

Note:


Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: With regard to the “fitnah” which Allaah attributes to Himself or which His Messenger attributes to Him, as in the aayah (interpretation of the meaning), ‘Thus We have tried [fatannaa] some of them with others’ [al-An’aam 6:53] and the words of Moosa, ‘It is only Your trial [fitnatuka] by which You lead astray whom You will’ [al-A’raaf 7:155 – interpretation of the meaning], that carries a different meaning, which is a test or trial from Allaah to His slaves by means of good things and bad, blessings and calamities. This is one thing; the fitnah of the mushrikeen is another thing; the fitnah or trial of the believer by means of his wealth, children and neighbour is another thing; the fitnah (tribulation, differences) that happen amongst the Muslims, like the fitnah that happened between the supporters of ‘Ali and Mu’awiyah, and between him and the people of the camel, and between Muslims when they fight one another or boycott one another, is another thing. (Zaad al-Ma’aad, vol. 3, p. 170).

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 9:

يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

“They (think to) deceive Allah and those who believe, while they only deceive themselves, and perceive (it) not!”


يُخَادِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَالَّذِينَ آمَنُوا

The hypocrite’s attempted deception (khidaa‘) of his Lord and of the believers is the verbal attestation of the truth which he declares with his tongue contrary to the doubt and denial in his heart. By it he seeks to ward off Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s judgement of death or captivity which would otherwise necessarily fall on whoever makes a denial as he does. [52]

Their deception; what is apparent from them is Iman which is different from the hidden which is kufr making their blood and wealth halal (rather than being haram for another Muslim if the person is a Muslim). They think that they can be safe (from Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s punishment) and can deceive (Allah سبحانه وتعالى and Muslims) [53]


وَمَا يَخْدَعُونَ إِلَّا أَنفُسَهُمْ

Allah سبحانه وتعالى stated that the hypocrites only deceive themselves by this behaviour, although they are unaware of this fact. Allah سبحانه وتعالى also said,

إِنَّ الْمُنَـفِقِينَ يُخَـدِعُونَ اللَّهَ وَهُوَ خَادِعُهُمْ

“Verily, the hypocrites try to deceive Allah, but it is He Who deceives them[54]

Also, Ibn Abi Hatim رحمه الله narrated that Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله commented on Allah سبحانه وتعالى‘s statement previously mentioned by saying, “The hypocrites pronounce, `There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah’ seeking to ensure the sanctity of their blood and money, all the while concealing disbelief. ”

Sa‘id bin Jubayr رحمه الله said that Qatadah رحمه اللهsaid regarding ayaatayn 8 &9, “This is the description of a hypocrite. He is devious; he says the truth with his tongue and defies it with his heart and deeds. He wakes up in a condition other than the one he goes to sleep in, and goes to sleep in a different condition than the one he wakes up in. He changes his mind just like a ship that moves about whenever a wind blows.” [55]


وَمَا يَشْعُرُونَ

‘AbduLlah bin Wahb رحمه الله said, “I asked ‘Abdur Rahman bin Zayd about this verse… He said, ‘They were unaware that they were harming themselves by concealing their unbelief and hypocrisy.’ Then he recited His words, ‘Upon the day when Allah shall awaken the all together.’ Ad said, ‘They are hypocrites’ – up to ‘and think they are on something56] ‘belief would have been useful for them before you.’” [57]

Benefits of this ayah:

From amongst the benefits of this ayah are:

1) That we know the hypocrites are people of plotting

2) That we should protect ourselves from the hypocrites. Then someone might ask, “How do recognise a hypocrite so we can save ourselves from him?” The answer is, “We will know from observing his sayings and actions; are they identical or contradictory? If we learn that this man is playing with us and outwardly loves Islam and loves the religion but when he is alone, we learn that for certainty he is fighting the religion then we know he is a hypocrite then it is an obligation upon us to save ourselves from him.

3) Evil plots do not result in anyone getting into trouble expect oneself

4) Evil actions lead to the blindness of ones understanding. [58]

Important point to note: This verse is one of the clearest proofs of Allah سبحانه وتعالى’s rebuttal of those who claim that Allah سبحانه وتعالى only chastises one who obstinately refuses to believe in Him after he comes to know of His Oneness and affirming the genuineness of His Books and Messengers عليهم السلام, in doing which he stubbornly opposes his Lord. [59]

Personal Comments:

1) We learn from this ayah another characteristic of a hypocrite which is that he has a deceptive nature. This is also clearly mentioned in the hadith of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم “Whoever has (the following) four characters will be a hypocrite, and whoever has one of the following four characteristics will have one characteristic of hypocrisy until he gives it up. These are: Whenever he talks, he tells a lie; whenever he makes a promise, he breaks it; whenever he makes a covenant he proves treacherous…” [60] Breaking promises and covenants is also a form of deception

2) Hypocrites also possess the trait of fearing people not Allah سبحانه و تعالى when committing sins in private not public. This, in fact, is type of riyaa’ which is show off and thus a minor shirk as one prevents himself from sins in public so people might think good of him.

May Allah سبحانه و تعالى protect us from being hypocrites. Ameen And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.

References:

[52] Tafsir AlTabari

[53] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[54] Qur`an AlKareem {4:142}

[55] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[56] Qur`an AlKareem {58:18}

[57] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[58] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[59] Tafsir AlTabari

[59] Sahih AlBukhari

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Ayah 8:

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not.”

On the authority of Ibn Zuray‘رحمه الله,Mujahid رحمه الله said, “Four verses were revealed in Surat AlBaqarah about the believers, two attributing the disbelievers, and thirteen for the hypocrites.” [44]

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ

This is for division i.e. some of the people (but not all). And Allah سبحانه وتعالى has not referred them with the character of Iman nor with kufr because they are as Allah سبحانه وتعالى has characterised in Surat AlNisaa’,

مُّذَبْذَبِينَ بَيْنَ ذَ‌ٰلِكَ لَا إِلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ وَلَا إِلَىٰ هَـٰؤُلَاءِ

“(They are) swaying between this and that, belonging neither to these nor to those…” [45][46]

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “This verse refers to the hypocrites from the tribes of Al Aws and Al Khazraj, and those who agreed with them.”

Meaning of Nifaaq:

Nifaaq means to show conformity – or agreement – and to conceal evil. Nifaaq has several types: Nifaaq in the creed that causes its people to reside in Hell for eternity, and Nifaaq in deed, which is one of the major sins. Thus Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله said of the hypocrite that, “His actual deeds are different from what he publicizes, what he conceals is different from what he utters, his entrance and presence are not the same as his exit and absence.” [47] [48]

Benefits of the Verse:

From the benefits of this verse are:

1) The eloquence of the Qur`an: Indeed the eloquence of the Qur`an is in categorisation for Allah سبحانه و تعالى started this Surah with the description of pure believers, then the disbelievers and then of the hypocrites

2) That verily the saying of the tongue will not benefit man as the saying of Allah سبحانه وتعالى ,

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَن يَقُولُ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ وَمَا هُم بِمُؤْمِنِينَ

“And of mankind, there are some (hypocrites) who say: “We believe in Allah and the Last Day” while in fact they believe not.”

3) That the hypocrites are not believers (Mu’mineen). But are the ones who submit to Allah سبحانه وتعالى (Muslimeen)? If what is meant by Islam as an outward submitting then they are Muslims. But is it is meant by the Islam of the heart, then they are not Muslims

4) That Iman must be in conformity with the heart and the tongue. And the proof for this is that these (hypocrites) say, “We Believe!” with their tongues and don’t believe with their hearts. [49]

Personal Comments:

We can also learn many other aspects from this verse:

1) That the hypocrites are those who lie when they speak and this is supported by the hadith of RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم when he said, “Four traits whoever possesses them is a hypocrite and whoever possesses some of them has an element of hypocrisy until he leaves it: the one who when he speaks, he lies…” [50] Imam AlHasan AlBasri رحمه الله has said, “Nifaaq is the difference between the inner and the appearance, between statement and action, between entering and leaving and it used to be said that the foundation of Nifaaq upon which it is built is lying.” It is because when one lies, he does something else in private and when asked about it in public; he says something that contradicts his action and this in reality the definition of hypocrisy given by RasuluLlah صلى الله عليه و سلم, AlHasan AlBasri and Ibn Jurayj رحمهما الله

2) Hypocrites are those are deceptive as the Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم said, “…He who deceives is not from us.” [51] “…not from us.” Means not following the conduct of Muslims or not following their way.

3) This ayah talks about the people who commit Nifaaq in ‘Aqeedah and thus are not Muslims.

And Allah سبحانه وتعالى knows best.


References:

[44] Tafsir AlQurtubi

[45] Qur`an AlKareem {4:143}

[46] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[47] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[48] Tafsir AlTabari

[49] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[50] Tafsir Ibn Al’Uthaymeen

[51] Sahihayn

[52] Sahih Muslim

May Allah سبحانه وتعالى forgive for my mistakes. Ameen

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بسم الله الرحمان الرحيم

الحمد الله

Continuing from the last time insha’Allah

Ayah 6:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا سَوَاءٌ عَلَيْهِمْ أَأَنذَرْتَهُمْ أَمْ لَمْ تُنذِرْهُمْ لَا يُؤْمِنُونَ

“Verily, those who disbelieve, it is the same to them whether you (O Muhammad Peace be upon him ) warn them or do not warn them, they will not believe.”

There are three opinions to whom this ayah refers to:

1) Jews of Madinah who knew the truth and lied against Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم [opinion of ‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما] [36]

2) Prophet صلى الله عليه و سلم wished that all people would believe but Allah سبحانه وتعالى had informed him that only for those whom He willed guidance would believe.

3) About the people Allah سبحانه وتعالى mentions,

“Have you not seen those who have changed the Blessings of Allah into disbelief (by denying Prophet Muhammad and his Message of Islam), and caused their people to dwell in the house of destruction? Hell, in which they will burn, – and what an evil place to settle in!”

They were the one killed in Battle of Badr.

In conclusion, Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله supported the opinions 1 & 2 and gave the reason,

“Because this follows Allah سبحانه و تعالى’s speaking about the believers amongst the people of Scripture thus it’s more appropriate that there should follow description about kuffar from them.” [37]


Ayah 7:

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ ۖ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

“Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearings, (i.e. they are closed from accepting Allah’s Guidance), and on their eyes there is a covering. Theirs will be a great torment.”

The original meaning of khatama is to impress (strike) [38]

خَتَمَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ قُلُوبِهِمْ وَعَلَىٰ سَمْعِهِمْ ۖ

As usual there also two opinions regarding this:

1) Al A’mash رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid showed us by using his hand and said, ‘Our Companions considered the heart like this’ i.e.; the palm of the hand. ‘When the servant commits a sin, a part of it is closed up’ and he demonstrated by curling up his little finger like this – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger – ‘and when he commits a sin it is closed up ‘and he demonstrated by curling up another finger like this, until he had curled up all his fingers. He said, ‘Then it is impressed with a seal.’ ‘They also considered this to be the “stain”’

Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “Mujahid said, ‘I was informed that sins surround the heart on various sided until they merge round about it. This merging round it is the impress, and the impress is the seal.

Also Ibn Jurayj رحمه الله narrates, “’Abd Allah bin Kathir said he heard Mujahid say, ‘The “stain” is less serious that the “seal”, the “seal” is less serious than the “locks”, the “locks” (refer to 47:24) are more severe than of all of these.”

2) Some of them said that the meaning of His words “Allah has set a seal on their hearts” is that it is a message from Allah about their arrogance, and their aversion to listening to the truth they were summoned to, as when one says that a person is deaf to what someone says when he refuses to listen to it and arrogantly makes up his mind not to understand it.

Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari رحمه الله’s opinion as a conclusion,

“The truth in this matter, according to me, is what accords with the truth of the report from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه و سلم:

‘When the believer commits a sin there is a black spot in his heart. If he repents, renounces it, and asks forgiveness, this polishes his heart. But if he compounds his sin, the point grows bigger till it lock his heart, and this is the stain (raan)which Allah سبحانه و تعالى speaks of. “Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering of sins and evil deeds) which they used to earn.” [39] [40]

Al-Qurtubi رحمه اللهsaid, “The Ummah has agreed that Allah has described Himself with sealing and closing the hearts of the disbelievers, as a punishment for their disbelief” [41]

وَعَلَىٰ أَبْصَارِهِمْ غِشَاوَةٌ

In Arabic, ghishawah means ‘covering’ for the stamp is placed on the heart and the hearing while the ghishawah, the covering, is appropriately placed on the eyes. [42]

وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ

‘AbduLlah bin ‘Abbas رضي الله عنهما said, “Theirs is a mighty chastisement for their opposition to you [Muhammad صلى الله عليه و سلم]. This concerns the Jewish Rabbis and concerns the truth which came to you from your Lord which they denied after they had knowledge.” [43]

References:

[36] Tafsir AlTabari & Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[37] Tafsir AlTabari

[38] Tafsir AlTabari

[39] Qur`an AlKareem {83:14}

[40] Tafsir AlTabari

[41] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[42] Tafsir Ibn Kathir

[43] Tafsir AlTabari

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